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Tuesday, August 1

  1. page Affirmative 2017 edited Title 1 1AC Equity Contention 1 is Equity The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education …

    Title 1
    1AC
    Equity
    Contention 1 is Equity
    The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education funding decisions entirely to the states. The result will be rapidly escalating inequality where more Title I funding goes to the wealthiest schools
    Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
    -New ESSA Gave States Discretion over Funding
    -Did not Increase Federal Funding
    AND
    -income students require more resources than their peers—not less.28
    ESSA weakened Title I’s comparability, maintenance of effort and supplement-not-supplant standards – that will magnify inequality
    Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
    -ESEA Resources Comparable, but Language is Vague.
    -Teacher Salaries are
    AND
    block this eventuality through regulation but faced congressional rebuke for doing so.271
    That means Title I funding is poorly targeted and benefits wealthier populations
    Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
    The ESSA, however, did almost nothing to ensure adequacy moving forward. First
    AND
    , with the wealthiest states receiving the largest per-pupil grants.290
    Unequal funding denies millions access to an excellent education
    Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “Disrupting Education Federalism” WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW [VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
    The United States continues to tolerate a longstanding educational opportunity gap. Today, it
    AND
    in low-income and high-income families also has widened. n7
    The consequences are devastating and fuel school-to-prison pipelines
    Meanes, 16 – Partner @Thompson Coburn, LLP; President @ National Bar Association 2014-15. J.D., University of Iowa; M.A., Clark Atlanta University; B.A., Monmouth College (Pamela J., “SCHOOL INEQUALITY: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS: Allen Chair Issue 2016: SCHOOL DISCIPLINE POLICIES: EQUITY IN AMERICAN EDUCATION: THE INTERSECTION OF RACE, CLASS, AND EDUCATION,” University of Richmond Law Review, 3/16, Lexis, 50 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1075)JLE
    III. Inequitable School Funding "We must recognize the full human equality of all
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    adults who are an expense to society//, rather than becoming contributing taxpayers.
    Reducing social inequality begins within k-12 schools---overwhelming evidence supports
    Corydon Ireland 16 – journalist; this is based on interviews with Harvard professor of economics Roland Fryer, Harvard Graduate School of Education Dean James E. Ryan, Ronald Ferguson, adjunct lecturer in public policy at Harvard Kennedy School and faculty director of Harvard's Achievement Gap Initiative, Robert Putnam, the Peter and Isabel Malkin Professor of Public Policy at Harvard Kennedy School, and Harvard economist Lawrence Katz (Corydon Ireland US News & World Report, 2-16-2016, https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-02-16/the-costs-of-inequality-education-is-the-key-to-it-all] Valiaveedu
    If inequality starts anywhere, many scholars agree, it's with faulty education. Conversely
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    educator Horace Mann's vision of public education as society's "balance-wheel."
    Inequality creates widespread structural violence. Rigorous studies demonstrate it’s responsible for one-third of all deaths every year
    Bezruchka, ‘14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University (“Inequality Kills,” Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)
    Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The
    AND
    simply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.
    Deaths from structural violence are greater every year than from wars – changing laws that facilitate inequality is vital
    Ansell, 17 - David A. Ansell, Senior Vice President, Associate Provost for Community Health Equity, and Michael E. Kelly Professor of Medicine at Rush University Medical Center (The Death Gap: How Inequality Kills, p. 7-10)
    There are many different kinds of violence. Some are obvious: punches, attacks
    AND
    . And it is wrong because we have the means to fix it.
    Structural violence is skyrocketing as inequality deepens – policy change focused on concentrated poverty is the key to reversing it
    Ansell, 17 - David A. Ansell, Senior Vice President, Associate Provost for Community Health Equity, and Michael E. Kelly Professor of Medicine at Rush University Medical Center (The Death Gap: How Inequality Kills, p. 194-198)
    The Chicago Transit Authority Blue Line train has a stop just in front of my
    AND
    to expose the conditions that curtail life and hasten death in our midst.
    Plan
    The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of elementary and secondary education in the United States through Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and create a replacement formula for distribution of funding that targets concentrated poverty, rewards progressive state funding, and rewards state fiscal effort.
    Solvency
    Contention 2 is Solvency
    The plan ramps up Title I funding to 45 billion a year – anything short can’t account for the scale of concentrated poverty. Linking this to progressive state funding and fiscal effort provides 40% extra resources for low-income students.
    Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
    Congress can then realign the Elementary and Secondary Education Act with its historic mission of
    AND
    Graduate School of Education. The data are on file with the author.
    Funding is the major determinant of adequate outcomes – criticisms don’t account for the plan’s targeting
    Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)DH
    Third, the ESSA’s willingness to largely ignore input equality and adequacy assumes that inputs
    AND
    the gap in outcomes// between low- and middle-income students.299
    The cycle of genocide begins with refusal of social support for those in need—recognizing and combating structural violence is the only ethical response
    Scheper-Hughes 7—professor of Anthropology and director of the program in Medical Anthropology at the University of California at Berkeley (Nancy, The Shadow Side of Fieldwork Exploring the Blurred Borders between Ethnography and Life “Chapter 7, The Gray Zone: Small Wars, Peacetime Crimes, and Invisible Genocides,” 8/13/07, http://14.139.206.50:8080/jspui/bitstream/1/2701/1/McLean&Leibing%20-%20The%20Shadow%20Side%20of%20Fieldwork%20Exploring%20the%20Blurred%20Borders%20between%20Ethnography%20and%20Life.pdf)//JLE
    Peacetime crimes are so deeply inscribed in our ordinary, unexamined lifeways that no one
    AND
    ) view of late modern history as a chronic “state of emergency.”
    Reject big-stick impacts which push minority bodies to the back of the triage- give a new sense of urgency to these bodies as a radical critique of the waiting politics of the negative which serve to make suffering infinite by continually delaying the aff
    Elizabeth Olson 2015 (Associate Professor of Geography and Global Studies at UNC-Chapel Hill, Geography and ethics I: Waiting and urgency, Progress in Human Geography, DOI: 10.1177/0309132515595758) 6/26/17
    Though toileting might be thought of as a special case of bodily urgency, geographic
    AND
    as fertile ground for radical critique, a truly fierce urgency for now.
    A confluence of factors makes great power war obsolete – nuclear deterrence, interdependence, democracy and international norms – assign minimal risk to neg impacts
    Fettweis 17 (Christopher J, *Associate Professor of Political Science at Tulane University, Ph.D. from the University of Maryland, College Park, “Unipolarity, Hegemony, and the New Peace,” Security Studies 26:3, 423-451)//cmr
    Competing Explanations The publication of Pinker’s The Better Angels of Our Nature in 2011 brought
    AND
    order it created, is the subject of the rest of this paper.
    Probability outweighs magnitude---large but low probability impacts insert us into counter-effective apocalyptic rhetoric
    Boisvert 15- [Will, journalist for The Breakthrough, writes on energy, environmental, and urban policy for The New York Observer, Dissent, and other publications, “Fear and Time: Risk Culture and the Broken Doomsday Clock” web 7.8.2017, https://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/journal/past-issues/issue-5/fear-and-time] Fall 2015ad
    But there are problems with apocalyptic dread as a framework for dealing with the issues
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    something very different: to embrace the risks that are most worth taking//.
    Federal action is key – local resistance undermines state-level funding. Claims the states can act underestimate the scale of necessary change and ignore the regressivity of state taxation
    Kleven 10—Professor of Law, Thurgood Marshall School of Law (Thomas, “Federalizing Public Education,” Villanova Law Review, 9/4/10, Lexis, 55 Vill. L. Rev. 369)JLE
    Some aspects of today’s unequal education could be addressed on the state level. If
    AND
    as with the federal promotion of equal educational opportunity// in other respects today.
    A federal statutory duty to increase Title I funding is the only sustainable way to guarantee funding over time. The federal signal is vital to overcoming shifting state and local political coalitions that will undermine funding over time
    Hinson, 15 – lawyer; JD at the University of Michigan; former researcher for the Southern Poverty Law Center (Elizabeth, “Mainstreaming Equality in Federal Budgeting: Addressing Educational Inequities With Regard to the States” v20 issue 2, http://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=mjrl italics in original
    The next challenge for the United States federal government is to commit funds where fiscal
    AND
    public schools in the United States may at last be countered and corrected.
    Overwhelming historical evidence proves the federal government is the only entity capable of overcoming local resistance to equitable funding
    Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “Disrupting Education Federalism” WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW [VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
    By enacting federal legislation and initiatives that embrace each of the elements discussed above,
    AND
    establish a much closer and more effective marriage between federal influence and responsibility.
    Vaccines 2
    1 Disease
    Contention 1 is Disease:
    Vaccine preventable diseases are on the rise – without action, a profusion of children will die.
    Vitolo-Haddad 15 --- is the Director of Debate at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a doctoral student in the Communication Arts department, MA in communication from Wake Forest in 2016, BS in Molecular Biology in 2014, University of Central Florida,. (CV, “KAIROTIC ECLIPSES IN VACCINE LEGISLATION: HOW OVERLAPPING SPHERES OF DISCOURSE CREATE IDEAL PUBLIC POLICY CLIMATES,” December 2015, https://wakespace.lib.wfu.edu/bitstream/handle/10339/57425/Vitolo_wfu_0248M_10824.pdf)//ernst
    Since the introduction of the smallpox vaccine in the seventeenth century, vaccination has maintained
    AND
    vaccine preventable illness are often diagnosed as general infections and treated with antibiotics.
    Mandatory Vaccinations Needed Now:
    First, Scientists and studies prove --- there’s no negative effects
    ERWIN CHEMERISKY AND MICHELE GOODWIN 4/19/2016 --- Erwin Chemerinsky is the founding Dean and Distinguished Professor of Law, and Raymond Pryke Professor of First Amendment Law, at University of California, Irvine School of Law, with a joint appointment in Political Science. Harvard Law School, J.D. Northwestern University, B.S Prior to assuming this position in 2008, he was the Alston and Bird Professor of Law and Political Science at Duke University from 2004-2008, and before that was a professor at the University of Southern California Law School from 1983-2004, including as the Sydney M. Irmas Professor of Public Interest Law, Legal Ethics, and Political Science. He also has taught at DePaul College of Law and UCLA Law School. Michele Goodwin is the Everett Fraser Professor in Law at the University of Minnesota. She holds joint appointments at the University of Minnesota Medical School and the University of Minnesota School of Public Health. (“COMPULSORY VACCINATION LAWS ARE CONSTITUTIONAL”, Erwin Chemerisky and Michele Goodwin, April 19, 2016, Proquest 599-614)chiragjain
    II. COMPULSORY VACCINATION LAWS ARE ESSENTIAL Many studies demonstrate the enormous value of vaccinations
    AND
    , is vaccinated unless there is a medical reason not to do so.
    Second, the amount of parents refusing to vaccinate their children is rising – triggers reintroduction of vaccine-curable diseases
    Horton 16 -- Dr. Kathryn J. Horton is a senior internal medicine resident at the University of Washington in Seattle and is currently working in the ABC News Medical Unit. Dr. Shailja Mehta, a resident in the ABC News Medical Unit, also contributed to this report. [8/29/16, Why Parents Aren't Vaccinating Their Kids, According to New Study, http://abcnews.go.com/Health/parents-vaccinating-kids-study/story?id=41716915] MP
    The belief that vaccines cause autism -- which has been debunked by the U.
    AND
    preventable disease is fair. They deserve a safe school and work environment."
    Disease kills kids – aff solves squo barriers
    Belisle 15 -- director of Child Health Quality Improvement at Maine Quality Counts, a nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the quality of healthcare. She also serves on the board of the Maine Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics and was recognized as the Maine CDC Childhood Immunization Champion in 2014 [Amy, Children continue to die from vaccine-preventable diseases. We can stop that, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jun/04/children-die-vaccine-preventable-diseases-we-can-stop-that] MP
    -Information Barrier
    As a pediatrician, I have been profoundly affected by watching
    AND
    2010. The only barrier is misinformation and the fear that it breeds.
    Causes mass illness, death, and suffering, disproportionately impacting the most vulnerable---defense doesn’t apply
    Arturo Casadevall 12, M.D., Ph.D. in Biochemistry from New York University, Leo and Julia Forchheimer Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, former editor of the ASM journal Infection and Immunity, “The future of biological warfare,” Microbial Biotechnology Volume 5, Issue 5, pages 584–587, September 2012, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1751-7915.2012.00340.x/full
    In considering the importance of biological warfare as a subject for concern it is worthwhile
    AND
    some of these species acquired the capacity for pathogenicity as a consequence of natural
    Flu vaccines are uniquely key for Native Americans and Alaskan Natives
    CDC 15 --- center for disease control (11/23/15, “American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu,” https://www.cdc.gov/features/aianflu/)//ernst
    Vaccination against the flu is especially important for American Indians and Alaska Natives, who
    AND
    Keep your community and Indian Country healthy by getting vaccinated against the flu.
    Disease disproportionately affects people of color due to antivaxxers – Somali measles crisis in Minnesota proves
    Sun 17 -- Columbia University - Graduate School of Journalism [Anti-vaccine activists spark a state’s worst measles outbreak in decades, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/anti-vaccine-activists-spark-a-states-worst-measles-outbreak-in-decades/2017/05/04/a1fac952-2f39-11e7-9dec-764dc781686f_story.html?utm_term=.6d4c02a42ba8, May 5, 2017] MP
    The young mother started getting advice early on from friends in the close-
    AND
    Another adult patient was hospitalized and on a breathing machine for three weeks.
    2 Poverty
    Contention 2 is Poverty
    Lack of immunization and poverty is tautological –providing mass vaccinations is key to break the cycle and pull out of human poverty
    Fairbank et al. 6 --- an applied research economist, budget/cost analyst and policy advisor concerning the financing of the delivering of medical and health services in diverse settings and conditions, written for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Alan, “Poverty Reduction and Immunizations,” March 15, 2006, http://www.path.org/files/PovertyReductionImmunizations-Abt.pdf)ernst
    HIPC = Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
    Immunizations can be a key and cost
    AND
    resources to immunizing their children, particularly the children in the poorest households.
    Absent the aff, outbreaks are inevitable- causes economic chaos for impoverished families who can’t afford to miss work to care for sick children
    Offit 17 -- Paul A. Offit is a professor of pediatrics at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the author of Deadly Choices: How the Anti-Vaccine Movement Threatens Us All (Basic Books, 2011). [6/24/17; What Makes Trumpcare So Dangerous for Kids, http://www.thedailybeast.com/what-makes-trumpcare-so-dangerous-for-kids?source=twitter&via=desktop] MP
    Let’s presume that Congress eventually enacts the dramatic cuts in funding proposed by the Senate’s
    AND
    viruses and bacteria that routinely disabled, hospitalized, and killed our children.
    Vaccinations reap huge social benefits in school children – save trillions of dollars in consumer spending, meaning families have to spend less to stay healthier
    Philipson et al. 17 Tomas J. Philipson, PhD; Julia Thornton Snider, PhD; Ayman Chit, PhD; Sarah Green, BA; Philip Hosbach, BA; Taylor Tinkham Schwartz, MPH; Yanyu Wu, PhD; and Wade M. Aubry, MD, January 2017, “The Social Value of Childhood Vaccination in
    the United States”, http://www.socialvalueuk.org/app/uploads/2017/02/AJMC_01_2017_Philipson-In-Press.pdf DJ
    The innovation of childhood vaccines has resulted in a decline in infectious disease, as
    AND
    for society, and how that value is distributed across patients and manufacturers.
    Disease destroy the quality of life
    Hotez 10 (Peter J. Hotez, scientist, pediatrician, and leading advocate and expert in the fields of global health, vaccinology, and neglected tropical disease control. He serves as founding dean of the Baylor College of Medicine National School of Tropical Medicine, chief of the new Section of Tropical Medicine in the BCM Department of Pediatrics and holds the Texas Children’s Hospital Endowed Chair in Tropical Pediatrics. He is also President of the Sabin Vaccine Institute, headquartered in Washington, DC; and leads the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development. Recently, he was named the Fellow in Disease and Poverty at Baker Institute for Public Policy at the Rice University, http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0000680, “Nuclear Weapons and Neglected Disease: The ‘Ten-Thousand-to-One Gap’”, April 27 2010)
    Despite this massive expenditure, each of the 11 nuclear weapons states, with the
    AND
    the helminth infections, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, and trachoma.
    Aff key – otherwise impoverished children slip through the cracks
    Murphy 16 --- covers K-12 education in the Rochester area, encompassing public, private and parochial schools. He’s worked at the Democrat and Chronicle since 2012 and before that was a reporter for The Citizen in Auburn. attended the University of Chicago and the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University. (Justin, 11/25/16, “Study: Poor children most likely to lack vaccinations,” http://www.democratandchronicle.com/story/news/2016/11/25/ny-vaccinations-schools-poverty/94068954/)ernst
    While it is common to hear of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children for
    AND
    conducted by researchers Jessica Nadeau, Louise-Anne McNutt and Jana Shaw.
    Plan Text
    Plan: The United States federal government should regulate elementary and secondary education by implementing a law that requires mandatory vaccination programs for elementary and secondary schools according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices schedule with stringent exemption standards.
    3 Solvency
    Contention 3 is Solvency:
    Federal government is key and solves – the federal government creates uniform standards, provides adequate incentive to follow the policy, and has expertise and financial and scientific resources
    Tohanczyn 16 --- Katherine is an associate in the Starfield Smith’s Fort Washington office. She concentrates her practice on commercial financing, real estate and corporate law with a focus on commercial lending and government guaranteed lending. (“ Katherine D., “WHO SHOULD CALL THE SHOTS? PROPOSING FEDERAL OVERSIGHT OF MANDATORY CHILDHOOD VACCINATIONS,” winter edition of the Philadelphia Lawyer 2016, http://www.philadelphiabar.org/WebObjects/PBAReadOnly.woa/Contents/WebServerResources/CMSResources/ginsburgessay15.pdf)ernst
    IV. SUGGESTIONS FOR CHANGE: WHY FEDERAL OVERSIGHT IS THE UPSHOT In order to
    AND
    this majority approach and also not allow a philosophical exemption under a federal program
    Federal vaccine policy is uniquely important NOW --- state’s can’t provide for it
    KATIE KIM AND LISA CAPITANNI 6/21/17 --- NBC Chicago Reporter for Budget Policy (“Thousands of Kids At Risk of Not Getting Vaccines”, Katie Kim and Lisa Capitanni, June 21, 2017, http://www.nbcchicago.com/news/local/Doctors-Say-State-Budget-Crisis-Could-Cause-Preventable-Health-Issues-429815003.html)chiragjain
    Thousands of children in Illinois are at risk of not getting their immunizations this year
    AND
    try to negotiate a state budget before the June 30 fiscal year deadline.
    Vaccination can saves millions of children’s lives every year – legislative action key
    Vitolo-Haddad 15 CV Vitolo is the Director of Debate at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a doctoral student in the Communication Arts department, December 2015, “KAIROTIC ECLIPSES IN VACCINE LEGISLATION: HOW OVERLAPPING SPHERES OF DISCOURSE CREATE IDEAL PUBLIC POLICY CLIMATES”, https://wakespace.lib.wfu.edu/bitstream/handle/10339/57425/Vitolo_wfu_0248M_10824.pdf DJ
    If these cases seem isolated, consider this: in the year Callie Van Tornhout
    AND
    list of mandatory childhood vaccines and eliminating so-called “philosophical exemptions.”
    School sites with federal intervention in particular are key – empirically proven
    Lindley et al 7 -- a National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; bSan Francisco Unified School District, San Francisco, California; c Section of Adolescent Medicine and Sports Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; dSchool of Nursing, University of Missouri, Kansas City, Missouri; e Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing, Michigan; f American School Health Association, Kent, Ohio [Megan C. Lindley, MPHa, Lynda Boyer-Chu, BSN, MPHb, Daniel B. Fishbein, MDa, Maureen Kolasa, RN, MPHa, Amy B. Middleman, MD, MPH, MSEdc , Thad Wilson, APRN, PhDd, JoEllen Wolicki, RN, BSNe, Susan Wooley, PhD, CHESf , for the Working Group on the Role of Schools in Delivery of Adolescent Vaccinations, August 22, 2007, The Role of Schools in Strengthening Delivery of New Adolescent Vaccinations] MP
    Vaccination in schools was first widely used when the polio vaccine was introduced in 1955
    AND
    limited, because many of the diseases they prevent have long incubation periods.
    The aff is key now
    Hoyer and Reilly 15– database team; investigative reporter and data specialist [Megan Hoyer and Steve Reilly; https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2015/02/04/schoolvaccinationrates/22840549/, Low vaccination rates at schools put students at risk] MP
    Vaccination data obtained by USA TODAY shows that nearly 1 in 7 schools is below
    AND
    they don't exist, I consider it a basic failure of public health."
    Doctors won’t fake medical exemptions – after Bob Sears, no one will risk their medical license – enforcement will crack down
    Gelfand 16 --- writes on science, culture, and politics for City Watch (Bob, 9/12/16, “A Potentially Devastating Blow to the Anti-Vaccination Movement,” http://www.citywatchla.com/index.php/the-la-beat/11780-a-potentially-devastating-blow-to-the-anti-vaccination-movement)ernst
    GELFAND’S WORLD--In a recent column (see the subsection titled Another dog that
    AND
    exemption mill in the way that the medical marijuana mills have been run.
    Reject big-stick impacts which push suffering bodies to the back of the triage- give a new sense of urgency to these bodies as a radical critique of the waiting politics of the negative which serve to make suffering infinite by continually delaying the aff
    Elizabeth Olson 2015 (Associate Professor of Geography and Global Studies at UNC-Chapel Hill, Geography and ethics I: Waiting and urgency, Progress in Human Geography, DOI: 10.1177/0309132515595758) 6/26/17
    Though toileting might be thought of as a special case of bodily urgency, geographic
    AND
    as fertile ground for radical critique, a truly fierce urgency for now.
    Disregard appeals to specific scenarios – the conjunction fallacy means each chain of their disad renders itself less probable.
    Yudkowsky ‘8 (Eliezer; 7/8/8; Cofounder of Machine Intelligence Research Institute, research fellow at MIRI, citing several psychological studies; Machine Intelligence Research Institute, “Cognitive Biases Potentially Affecting Judgment of Global Risks,” https://intelligence.org/files/CognitiveBiases.pdf, p. 7-8)
    The conjunction fallacy similarly applies to futurological forecasts. Two independent sets of professional analysts
    AND
    a futurist, disjunctions make for an awkward and unpoetic-sounding prophecy.
    Their nuclear rhetoric is problematic – causes a numbing effect and ignores history
    Kato 93 --- Department of Political Science, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii (Masahide, SUMMER 1993, “Nuclear Globalismi Traversing Rockets, Satellites, and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze,” http://www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.umich.edu/stable/pdf/40644779.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3Aecac2a1fca1ab63034b41905e02c43ab)//ernst
    The Configuration of Extinction Nuclear criticism finds the likelihood of "extinction" as the
    AND
    the core of the ideology of globalism cum technosubjectivity manifested in nuclear criticism.

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Friday, July 28

  1. page aff cites -- henry and leo edited contact email: southeugenels@gmail.com deleuze aff -- 1ac I who am singing these lines today…

    contact
    email: southeugenels@gmail.com

    deleuze aff -- 1ac
    I who am singing these lines today
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  2. page aff cites -- henry and leo edited ... AND goes berserk and kills even more people than terrorists, and so on. ... – those that …
    ...
    AND
    goes berserk and kills even more people than terrorists, and so on.
    ...
    – those that disrupt the
    Winnubst 6. Shannon Winnubst, professor of Women’s and gender studies at Ohio State University, Queering Freedom, pg. 17-19 saenl
    So, why queer freedom?As queer theory has demonstrated for some time,
    (view changes)
  3. page aff cites -- henry and leo edited ... In the primordial scene, which Girard (1986) has described, the society AND ... so on. …
    ...
    In the primordial scene, which Girard (1986) has described, the society
    AND
    ...
    so on.
    In the face of the terror of post-politics, resistance subsequently finds itself in the trap of liberalism, bound by the contradictory demand that subjects transcend material differences to embrace a universal humanity while requiring the maintenance of rigid differences used to foster competition amongst identities. Such a model systematically demonizes and excludes any affirmation of queer strategies – those disrupt the categories themselves and thus offer the only true chance for resistance
    Winnubst 6. Shannon Winnubst, professor of Women’s and gender studies at Ohio State University, Queering Freedom, pg. 17-19 saenl
    So, why queer freedom?As queer theory has demonstrated for some time,
    AND
    ...
    onto freedom.
    We take up debate as a queer space of educational experimentation, creatively producing lines of flight while simultaneously destroying the fabric of molar regimes to unleash new potentials for unbounded subjectivity, gesturing toward something otherwise
    Wallin 14. Jason Wallin, Professor of Media and Youth Culture in Curriculum in the Faculty of Education at the University of Alberta, “Education Needs to Get a Grip on Life” in Deleuze and Guattari, Politics and Education: For a People-Yet-to-Come, Bloomsbury Academic, 2014, via epub
    ...
    Prefer valid, descriptive theories of the world as a form of explanatory critique – epistemic shifts from Eurocentric thought are impossible without reclaiming the concept of objectivity
    Jones 4. August 2004, Branwen Gruffydd, PhD in Development Studies from the University of Sussex, Senior Lecturer in International Political Economy at Goldsmiths University of London, “From Eurocentrism to Epistemological Internationalism: power, knowledge and objectivity in International Relations,” Paper presented at Theorising Ontology, Annual Conference of the International Association for Critical Realism, University of Cambridge, http://www.csog.group.cam.ac.uk/iacr/papers/Jones.pdf
    ...
    mainstream IR
    AND
    ...
    hundred years.
    Pragmatism

    Pragmatism
    centered on
    ...
    political contestation
    Nyman 16. Teaching Fellow in International Relations at the University of Leicester, UK, Jonna, “Pragmatism, practice and the value of security,” in Ethical Security Studies: A new research agenda, Routledge, pg. 139-141
    A pragmatic, practice-centred approach can help us return to the original forces
    ...
    AND
    analysts from anticipating and understanding the pivotal junctures that arise in international affairs.
    ...
    social surroundings
    Martin 13. Professor in the Department of Anthropology @ New York University, Emily, “The Potentiality of Ethnography and the Limits of Affect Theory,” Current Anthropology: Vol. 54, No. S7
    Many scholars in the humanities have recently engaged with research in neuroscienceto posit a
    AND
    the material brain and those neurological interactions that are necessary to reproduce it.
    ...
    to totalitarianism
    Condit 15. Celeste, Distinguished Research Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Georgia, “Multi-Layered Trajectories for Academic Contributions to Social Change,” Feb 4, 2015, Quarterly Journal of Speech, Volume 101, Issue 1, 2015
    ...
    violence to
    AND
    now include the hard laborto produce alternative visions that appear materially feasible.
    ...
    they’re wrong
    Schwartz 8. Joseph, Professor of Political Science at Temple University, “The Future of Democratic Equality,” 56-61
    ...
    justifiable if
    AND
    moral responsibility has covertly snuck its way back into Butler’s political strategy.52
    (view changes)
  4. page aff cites -- henry and leo edited deleuze aff [primary] Everything begins before it begins, but this 1AC starts with -- 1ac I w…

    deleuze aff [primary]
    Everything begins before it begins, but this 1AC starts with
    -- 1ac
    I who am singing these lines today
    Will be tomorrow
    the question of the silent majority, the routing of desire through microfascist self-hatred on both the Rightenigmatic corpse
    Who dwells in a realm, magical
    and the Left that necessitatesbarren,
    Without a before or
    an incision into status quo pedagogy, seekingafter or a deterritorialized path towards freedom. The realm of the silent majority iswhen.
    So say
    the realmmystics. I say I believe
    Myself undeserving
    of microfascism, a foundationally reactive and spiteful response to the inherent flux and murkinessHeaven or of existence. This is a mode of subjectification in which one can only affirmHell,
    But make no predictions. Each man’s tale
    Shifts like
    the self over and against the evil other: the Fascist! The Communist! The Capitalist! This group superego and herd moralism creates a politicswatery forms of extreme self-righteousness, engendering territorial captureProteus.
    What errant labyrinth, what blinding flash
    Of splendor
    and glory shall become my fate
    When
    the destructionend of a valuethis adventure presents me with
    The curious experience of death?
    I want
    to existence.
    Seem 83. Mark Seem, translator
    drink its crystal-pure oblivion,
    To be forever; but never to have been.
    Status quo forms
    of Anti-Oedipus, famous American intellectual, “Introduction” in Anti-Oedipus by Deleuze and Guattari, Trans. 1983, xvi-xvii
    Such
    education collude with a setblinding form of beliefs, Deleuzerationality to impose molar subjectivities onto individuals, increasing productivity and Guattari demonstrate, such a herd instinct
    AND
    exists, all the names in history"),
    homogeneity while obliterating the schizophrenic process of desire.
    What is missing in education is a people adequate to the task
    possibility of the
    ...
    creation of values and the refusal of a ressentiment laden hatred towards the world. Now, schools are not made for children – children are made for schools. The imposition of a planned curriculum whether neoliberal or ostensibly revolutionary always engineers student subjectivity towards microfascism, erecting a universal subject hell bent onsubjectivities, guaranteeing the obliterationformation of allreactionary subjectivities that is outside it. This molar visionfeed broader networks of education reeks of the microfascist desire to control. This isAgainst the eradepressive tone of pumping children full of pharmaceutical amphetamines in orderthe unified curriculum, we turn to ensure normalization and docility. This standardization through a ‘planned curriculum’ is an evisceration of a new mode of subjectivity in which students are encouraged to actively create and recreate themselves, engendering revolutionary politics. Education today is capableour only of producing a people premised on conformity and regimes of representation and significationoption leftwe must cut into this imageaffirming the watery forms of educational thought and erect a nomadicProteus to lacerate the image of student subjectivity in flux and becoming.itself.
    Wallin 14.
    ...
    via epub
    “A people
    tbrooks
    people
    to come.
    ...
    in institutional education, that
    AND
    a necessary violence to those habits of repetition with which thought becomes contracted.
    The impact is a war on difference in which a new totalitarianism premised on reactive orientationsSuch an image of education soon falls victim to desirecurriculum and a hatred ofthus proceeds the world outpaces traditional liberal-democratic governance entirely. Today, all that remains is an inaccurate simulationnihilism of political participation – true conflict over differing visions of the political is eliminated, erectingpolitics, feeding a normal, everyday fascismbanal will to sameness that resultsannuls conflict only in a reactive orientationorder to the inevitable anxiety of life producingresurrect it as a constant war on difference. Mere political reformlaunchpad for revengeful subject formation. The drive for communicative efficiency is insufficient –a technocratic desire for homogeneity that proliferates contestation and debate only a radical reorientation of subjectivityto collapse meaning into information. A striving towards active creationan ordered public acts to neutralize dissent through deliberation and affirmation can undercut the ongoing war ofpropagate a collective hate that reigns, disembodied, over all against all.
    Karatzogianni
    racial, colonial, and Robinson 13. Athina Karatzogianni, Senior Lecturer in Media and Communicationxenophobic apparatuses of power
    Diken 11. Bulent Diken, professor of sociology
    at theLancaster University (UK), Militarization as a Comedy of Leicester (UK), and Andrew Robinson, independent researcher and writer, “Schizorevolutions vs. Microfascisms: A Deleuzo-Nietzschean Perspective on State, Security, and Active/Reactive Networks,” Selected Works, July 2013, http://works.bepress.com/athina_ karatzogianni, 8-17, via academia.edu
    Thesis 2: The threatened state transmutes into
    T(errors), Economía Autónoma. Vol. IV. No. 7. Enero – junio 2011: 7
    In
    the terror state. The return ofprimordial scene, which Girard (1986) has described, the society
    AND
    enclaves or at the periphery’, countering reactive energies (ibid. 277).
    We take inspiration from Felix Guattari’s experimental psychotherapy at his La Borde clinic. As a hospital
    goes berserk and a site of micro-revolutionary transgression, the La Borde clinic radically re-shaped educationalkills even more people than terrorists, and clinical roles, illustrating a possible basis for new universes of reference and new conductors forso on.
    In
    the creation of alternative student subjectivity. As Guattari himself once said of La Borde, “The central intention is to abrogate various roles and stereotypes: to behave like a madman, a doctor or a nurse, to promote human relationships that no longer lead automatically to lesser relationships.” Just as La Borde put into praxis research lines that inhabited mental health institutions while charting linesface of escape from within, the 1AC is such a plottingterror of new lines, trying out new configurations of group identitypost-politics, resistance subsequently finds itself in the classroom space. Like La Borde, our subtle but radical performance in this debate constitutes a destructive linetrap of escape against all transcendent ideals.
    We take up debate as a space of educational experimentation,
    liberalism, bound by the active creation of values, andcontradictory demand that subjects transcend material differences to embrace a total refusal ofuniversal humanity while requiring the forcesmaintenance of microfascism that arbitrarily attemptrigid differences used to constrain the people that students might become. What is needed isfoster competition amongst identities. Such a new people, a new mode of becoming in the world. As Deleuzemodel systematically demonizes and Guattari explain,
    “The question then became whether molecular or atomic ‘populations’
    excludes any affirmation of all natures (mass media, monitoring procedures, computers, space weapons) would continue to bombardqueer strategies – those disrupt the existing people in order to train it or control it or annihilate it—or if other molecular populations were possible, could slip into the firstcategories themselves and give rise to a people yet to come. … [T]he question has become: ‘To dwell as a poet or as an assassin?’ The assassin is one who bombardsthus offer the existing people with molecular populations that are forever closing allonly true chance for resistance
    Winnubst 6. Shannon Winnubst, professor
    of the assemblages, hurling them into an ever widerWomen’s and deeper black hole. The poet, on the other hand, is one who lets loose molecular populations in hopes that this will sow the seeds of, or even engender, the peoplegender studies at Ohio State University, Queering Freedom, pg. 17-19 saenl
    So, why queer freedom?As queer theory has demonstrated for some time,
    AND
    anxiety endemic
    to come,desire, toward ones of joy that these populations will pass into a people to come, open onto freedom.
    We take up debate as
    a cosmos.”
    We seek to dwell as poets within debates, cosmic artisans inhabiting policy debate’s forms in order to generate
    queer space of educational experimentation, creatively producing lines of flight while simultaneously destroying the possibilityfabric of an entirelymolar regimes to unleash new people yet to come.potentials for unbounded subjectivity, gesturing toward something otherwise
    Wallin 14. Jason Wallin, Professor of Media and Youth Culture in Curriculum in the Faculty of Education at the University of Alberta, “Education Needs to Get a Grip on Life” in Deleuze and Guattari, Politics and Education: For a People-Yet-to-Come, Bloomsbury Academic, 2014, via epub
    It is crucial to rejoin that the supple line is ambivalent (Deleuze and Guattari
    AND
    by party bosses, organizational hierarchies and the clichés of orthodox educational thought.
    Wenatives aff -- 1ac
    Advantage
    Native students in BIE schools
    are swamped by political action. What we need are new problematics that cut into conventional ways of knowing the political field. Flipping the dialectic will not due – absent the suicide of the coherence of the representational and universal subject as such, all attempts to move simply rigidify the dialectic opposition to the norm without truly challenging it. A joyous and affirmative critique is necessary to avoid the re-situationabhorrent conditions including carbon monoxide poisoning
    Melmer 16. David; 3/14/16; Operator
    of ressentiment, only mirroring the status quo without any prayer to change it.
    Eloff 15. Aragorn Eloff, nomad in South Africa, “Children of the New Earth – Deleuze, Guattari, and Anarchism,” July 31, 2015, http://meme.co.za/?p=152
    Instead of programs for political action, let’s produce shared problematics. How do we
    AND
    enfoldings of affect and expression, exchange and becoming-other-together.
    cte aff [secondary]
    1ac
    economy
    State budget shortfalls slow economic growth and ensure they lack sufficient revenue to fund pensions
    Donlan 17. Thomas G. Donlan, editor at Barron’s, “There’s
    Indianz.com, a Holeblog formed in State Pensions,” Feb 11, 2017, http://www.barrons.com/articles/theres-a-hole-in-state-pensions-1486794298
    Turn away from the lurid deficit spectacles in Washington to examine the declining state of
    AND
    a firm arguing for tougher standards “may be disqualified from further consideration.”
    That collapses the US economy
    Reeves 3/24.Jeff Reeves is
    a stock analyst and executive editor of InvestorPlace.com. His commentary has also appeared on CNBC, Fox Business, USA Today, and the Wall Street Journal network, “Your pension could be at the center of America's next financial crisis,” March 24, 2017, http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/finance/325564-the-pension-crisis-will-be-americas-next-financial-crisis
    I’m not a fan of the “greed is good” mentality of Wall Street
    AND
    Social Security, even in an imperfect form, well beyond 2034?
    Federal CTE funding is critical to avoid impending budget crisis and stimulate economic growth
    CCD 17. Published by the American Association of Community Colleges, 6-23-2017, "Governors support CTE, job-training funding – Community College Daily," Community College Daily, http://www.ccdaily.com/2017/05/governors-support-cte-job-training-funding/
    The National Governors Association (NGA) doesn’t often wade into debates over federal appropriations
    AND
    to ensure students are prepared for a 21st century economy,” NGA said.
    States increasing funding on their own would run afoul of balanced-budget requirements and further downgrade their creditworthiness – only increasing federal block grant spending can solve fiscal shortfalls
    Gamage 10.David Gamage, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), “Preventing State Budget Crises: Managing the Fiscal Volatility Problem,” California Law Review, 98 Calif. L. Rev. 749, June, 2010, lexis
    Politicians generally benefit both from cutting taxes and from increasing spending on popular programs.
    AND
    balanced budget constraint itself, thereby reducing its potential to provide countercyclical support.
    Two impact scenarios – 1st is diversionary war
    It’s uniquely true under trump
    Foster 12/19. Dennis M., professor of international
    partnership with Lakota Immersion Daycare, citing three GAO studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, “Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?,” http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home
    If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
    AND
    ramifications of an economic downturn with
    a President Trump in the White House.
    That goes nuclear and causes extinction
    Street 16. Tim, fellow of the Sustainable Security Programme at the Oxford Research Group, previously researcher with the British American Security Information Council, Ph.D. from Warwick University, 11/30/16, “President Trump: Successor to the Nuclear Throne,” http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefing_papers_and_reports/president_trump_successor_nuclear_throne
    Donald Trump’s arrival in the White
    House as US President has deeply unnerved people from
    AND
    to widespread anger, confusion and unrest, both at home and abroad.
    2nd is Heg – collapse of the economy kills economic leadership and hegemony – that’s a conflict multiplier
    Lieberman and Kyl 15. Joseph Lieberman- senior counsel at Kasowitz Benson Torres and Friedman LLP. Former United States senator and attorney general of the State of Connecticut. Jon Kyl- sat
    Investigation on the powerful Senate Finance Committee, where he was the top Republican on the Subcommittee on Taxation and Internal Revenue Service Oversight, also served as the ranking Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism. “Why American Leadership Still Matters” https://www.aei.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Why-American-Leadership-Still-Matters_online.pdf mba-alb
    This report reflects the fundamental consensus
    BIA accountability; Indianz.com, “Bureau of our project’s members that American global leadership is
    AND
    US business. These issues all underscore the need
    Indian Affairs slammed for stronger US leadership.
    worker shortages
    Scenario 1 is Cyber
    safety conditions at schools,” https://www.indianz.com/News/2016/03/14/bureau-of-indian-affairs-slamm.asp
    The cyber workforce gap makes the US unprepared for a large scale cyber attack now
    Kim 5/19. Anne Kim - Senior Writer at the Washington Monthly. She is also a senior fellow at the Aspen Institute’s initiative on financial security and a senior fellow at the Progressive Policy Institute. Before joining the Monthly, Anne served as senior policy strategist at the nonprofit CFED, as the economic program director at the think tank Third Way, and as legislative director and deputy chief
    Bureau of staff to Rep. Jim Cooper – “Trump Is Ignoring America’s Looming Cybersecurity Threat” – 5/19/17 - http://washingtonmonthly.com/2017/05/19/trump-is-ignoring-americas-looming-cybersecurity-threats/ /TK
    ¶ The “ransomware” attack that crippled computer systems around
    Indian Affairs doesn't know the globe last week
    AND
    won’t get the money or the attention it deserves – until too late.
    The plan solves - CTE is key to STEM education
    Wolfe 6/26. Alexis Wolfe - science policy analyst
    true health and writer for FYI and is currently working on expanding FYI’s multimedia portfolio. Prior to joining AIP, she was an Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Fellow and NOAA Sea Grant Knauss Marine Policy Fellowsafety conditions at the U.S. Department of Energy, focusing on science communication – “Career and Technical Education Emerging as Vehicle for STEM in Trump Era” – 6/26/17 - https://www.aip.org/fyi/2017/career-and-technical-education-emerging-vehicle-stem-trump-era /TK
    Experiential, work-based career and technical education programs are receiving attention from policymakers
    schools
    AND
    community college students with internship positions at oneexplanation for why repairs took significantly longer than Indian Affairs’ required time frames."
    A lack
    of 15 national energy laboratories.¶
    Improving technical
    funding is the key reason – schools are understaffed and STEM educationoverstretched
    Melmer 16. David; 3/14/16; Operator of Indianz.com, a blog formed
    in primarya partnership with Lakota Immersion Daycare, citing three GAO studies and secondary schools is key to establish a sustainable pipelineHouse Investigation on BIA accountability; Indianz.com, “Bureau of workers into the cyber security field – that resolves the workforce gap
    Kay et al 12. David J. Kay - Research Analystin the Center
    Indian Affairs slammed for Technology andNational Security Policy (CTNSP), Institutefor National Strategic Studies,at the National Defense University;Terry J. Pudas - Senior ResearchFellow in CTNSP; Brett Young -Research Assistant in CTNSP – “Preparing the Pipeline:The U.S. Cyber Workforcefor the Future” – August 2012 - http://ctnsp.dodlive.mil/files/2013/07/DH-072.pdf /TK
    It is clear
    safety conditions at schools,” https://www.indianz.com/News/2016/03/14/bureau-of-indian-affairs-slamm.asp
    "Congress needs
    to cyber experts and observers inside and outside government that many ofspend whatever it takes to fix these schools," Rep.
    AND
    -, and long-term human capital strategies for government departments and agencies.
    Attack on
    appropriate the grid is inevitable – it escalatesfunding to war
    Knake 4/3. Robert K. Knake - Whitney Shepardson senior fellow at
    carry out those projects in the Council on Foreign Relations. His work focuses on Internet governance, public-private partnerships, and cyber conflict. Knake served from 2011coming fiscal years.
    Funding is critical
    to 2015 as directorfulfill Native requests for cybersecurity policy at theself-determination and spills to other areas
    NCAI 13.
    National Security Council –Congress of American Indians; 4/19/13; Organized legal body representing Native Americans, citing multiple GAO, BIE, and Congressional commission reports; NCAI, “A Cyberattack onCall to Honor the Promises To Tribal Nations in the Federal Budget,” http://www.ncai.org/resources/ncai_publications/honor-the-promises-the-tribal-nations-in-the-federal-budget
    As Congress and
    the U.S. Power Grid” – 4/3/17 - https://www.cfr.org/report/cyberattack-us-power-grid /TK
    The U.S. power grid has long been considered a logical target
    Administration debate elements of various budget proposals for fiscal year (
    AND
    action, as opposed to a responsesources, 2.5 times higher than for state and local governments.
    The plan enables tribal self-management
    GAO 17. Government Accountability Office; 5/24/17; Federal agency
    in kind, would be likely.
    Cyber-attacks
    charge of oversight and recommendations for other United States offices, citing and conducting a multi-year meta-study on tribal schools under the grid wipe-out the US military---causes nuclear war
    Tilford 12. Robert, Graduate US Army Airborne School, Ft. Benning, Georgia, “Cyber attackers could shut down the electric grid
    DOI; GAO, “Actions Needed to Better Manage Indian School Construction Projects,” http://www.gao.gov/assets/690/684894.pdf
    Once funding
    for the entire east coast” 2012, http://www.examiner.com/article/cyber-attackers-could-easily-shut-down-the-electric-grid-for-the-entire-east-coa
    we reject ableist
    BIE school construction and offensive language
    To make matters worse a cyber attack
    repair is available, tribes may choose to
    AND
    includebefore funds are disbursed and to provide technical assistance when it is requested.
    Plan: The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of elementary and secondary public and Bureau of Indian Education schools for comprehensive and equitable resources, delegating all implementation decisions to Native communities
    Framing
    Pragmatic epistemological accounts in
    the usecontext of “nuclear weapons”, if authorized byindigeneity are important – the President.
    .Independently, cyber threats lead to accidental nuclear escalation
    Van der Meer 16.Sico van der Meer - Research Fellow at
    status quo maintains the Clingendael Institute. His researchbaseless essentialism of Native bodies
    Nakata et. al. 12.Martin Nakata
    is focussing on non-conventional weapons like Weaponsthe director of Mass DestructionNura Gili at the University of New South Wales, Victoria works at the Nura Gili centre for Indigenous Programs, Sarah Geech is lecturer at the Nura Gili Centre and cyber weapons fromhas a strategic policy perspective – “Cyber WarfarePhD from the School of Education at the University of New South Wales, Reuben Bolt is an associate professor at the Nura Gili Centre, 2012, “Decolonial Goals and Nuclear Weapons: Game-changing Consequences?” – 12/6/16 -https://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/SWP_Paper_Chapter_Sico_van_der_Meer.pdf /TK
    Most nuclear weapons systems were designed¶ decades ago, when manipulations
    Pedagogies for Indigenous Studies”, Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012 pp. 120-140
    In Indigenous Studies, simplistic critique
    of computer¶the Western has had a tendency toward reductive
    AND
    cheaper¶ cyber weapons with morethe Academy, albeit often in the form of inclusive patronisation or lesstolerance.
    Talking about
    the same deterrent¶ effect.
    Scenario 2
    affirmative in academia is Ag
    The need for skilled agriculture workers will continue to grow
    importantCTEthe alternative is silence which maintains settler futurity
    Calderon 14. Dolores Calderon
    is critical to a sufficient amountNative American studies professor at the University of graduates
    Willis 17. Victoria, masters
    Utah, Mexican and Tigua Badass, 7/28/2014, “Uncovering Settler Grammars in agricultural education from Clemson University, “Nurturing our Established Roots: The Smith-Hughes Act as a Model for AgriculturalCurriculum”, Educational Studies: A Journal of the American Education Career Preparation” The Agricultural Education Magazine Vol 89Studies Association, Vol. 50, Issue 4, January 2017, pg 27 GK
    Considering retirement rates, the need to supply the STEM pipeline,
    4 – De/colonizing, (Post)(Anti)colonial, and the worlds’Indigenous Education, Studies, and Theories
    Settler societies claim to be founded by migrant groups (immigrant nation) that build

    AND
    takerely on the challengesgrammars of empty lands and settler superiority to support settler expansion.
    Prefer valid, descriptive theories
    of the future for the bettermentworld as a form of our society.
    CTE solves ag
    explanatory critiquecauses aninflux of new workersto sustainepistemic shifts from Eurocentric thought are impossible without reclaiming the sector
    Trexler 16. Tiffany, masters
    concept of scienceobjectivity
    Jones 4. August 2004, Branwen Gruffydd, PhD
    in agricultural educationDevelopment Studies from California State University, Chico, “THE ADDITION OF AN AGRICULTURE MECHANICS PATHWAY TO BEAR CREEK HIGH SCHOOL” CSU Chico spring 2016, pgs 12-15 GK
    One
    the University of Sussex, Senior Lecturer in International Political Economy at Goldsmiths University of London, “From Eurocentrism to Epistemological Internationalism: power, knowledge and objectivity in International Relations,” Paper presented at Theorising Ontology, Annual Conference of the reasons thereInternational Association for Critical Realism, University of Cambridge, http://www.csog.group.cam.ac.uk/iacr/papers/Jones.pdf
    The rejection of positivism which
    is a need to expand CTE in general, butcentral element of recent critiques of mainstream IR
    AND
    mechanics pathway was researched, genocide and planned, withdispossession which have characterised European expansion over five hundred years.
    Pragmatism centered on weak-ontological claims is the best process for reflexive political contestation
    Nyman 16. Teaching Fellow in International Relations at
    the intentUniversity of rapid adoption.
    Severe food shortagesare coming now – they ensuremultiple pathsto extinction – a lack of academic interest increases
    Leicester, UK, Jonna, “Pragmatism, practice and the odds
    Heneghan 15. Carolyn, freelance writer with experience
    value of security,” in food and agriculture systems aroundEthical Security Studies: A new research agenda, Routledge, pg. 139-141
    A pragmatic, practice-centred approach can help us return to
    the world, “Where food crises and global conflict could collide” Fooddive 1/22/15, http://www.fooddive.com/news/where-food-crises-and-global-conflict-could-collide/350837 GK
    World War III is unimaginable for many, but some experts believe that not only
    original forces
    AND
    find ways to solve the problem before it becomes something they cannot control.
    US agriculture ships internationally
    class or a post-national constellation. (Brassett 2009a: 242)
    The affirmative is an ethos of specific intellectualism
    that’s key to global food security
    Edmark 15. Dave, U
    working within the power relations of A System Divisionexisting institutions and engaging in role experimentation enables a large-scale politics of swarming that unsettles entrenched relationships of power in favor of Agriculture, “Food security vital for national interests, world markets,” Cattle News Network 10/23/15, http://www.cattlenetwork.com/news/food- security-vital- national-interests- world-markets GK
    Improving global food security should be
    a U.S. priority because it isbetter future
    Connolly 17.William Connolly, Krieger-Eisenhower Professor of Political Science at Johns Hopkins University, Facing the Planetary: Entangled Humanism and the Politics of Swarming, Duke University Press, 2017, 125-129
    Perhaps in the contemporary situation too a politics of swarming provides the most promising pursuit

    AND
    companies spending $8 billion to build infrastructurerepression, and supply chains in Africa.
    Food shortages trigger nuclear escalation
    FDI 12. Future Directions International,
    scapegoating. The stakes of a Research institute providing strategicswarming approach are high.
    Scenario
    analysis of Australia’s global interests; citing Lindsay Falvery, PhD in Agricultural Scienceis pedagogically valuable – enhances creativity and former Professor at the University of Melbourne’s Institute of Landself-reflexivity while deconstructing cognitive biases and Environment, “Food and Water Insecurity:flawed assumptions
    Barma et al. 16.Naazneen, UC Berkeley political science PhD, “Imagine a World in Which’: Using Scenarios in Political Science”,
    International Conflict Triggers & Potential Conflict Points,” http://www.futuredirections.org.au/workshop-papers/537-international-conflict-triggers-and-potential-conflict-points-resulting-from-food-and-water-insecurity.html
    There is a growing appreciationthat
    Studies Perspectives 17 (2), pp. 1-19, http://www.naazneenbarma.com/uploads/2/9/6/9/29695681/using_scenarios_in_political_science_isp_2015.pdf
    Over
    the conflictspast decade, the “cult of irrelevance” in the next century will most likelypolitical science scholarship
    AND
    identify famine as a potential trigger for conflictsanalysts from anticipating and possibly even nuclear war.
    plan
    Plan: The United States federal government should substantially increase career and technical education formula grants
    understanding the pivotal junctures that arise in international affairs.
    No scientific basis
    for public secondary education, includingaffect – psychological orientations are a Career and Technical Education Pathways Trust Fund supplemented by Social Innovation Financing.
    solvency
    The plan galvanizes private sector support for secondary CTE education through
    result of social innovation financing and competitive grants
    Hasak 16. Jonathan Hasak is a Manager
    surroundings
    Martin 13. Professor in the Department of Anthropology @ New York University, Emily, “The Potentiality
    of Public PolicyEthnography and Government Affairs at Year Up, graduate of the Harvard Graduate SchoolLimits of Education and a former Teach for America corps member who taughtAffect Theory,” Current Anthropology: Vol. 54, No. S7
    Many scholars
    in the Oakland Unified School District, “A summer surprise: the case for CTE reform,” 7/1/16, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/286111-a-summer-surprise-the-case-for-cte-reform
    In less than 16 days, the United Sta tes Congress will adjourn for
    humanities have recently engaged with research in neuroscienceto posit a
    AND
    remaining days in session to reauthorize the Perkins Careerthe material brain and Technical Education Act.
    Linking high schools
    those neurological interactions that are necessary to CTE programs administered by the private sector ensures the developmentreproduce it.
    Detail-oriented politics are key to effective reforms – vague proposals collapse to totalitarianism
    Condit 15. Celeste, Distinguished Research Professor
    of a workforce that overcomes looming productivity and skills gaps
    Jackson and Hasak 14. John H. Jackson is
    Communication Studies at the president and CEOUniversity of the Schott FoundationGeorgia, “Multi-Layered Trajectories for Public Education, held leadership positions at the National Association for the AdvancementAcademic Contributions to Social Change,” Feb 4, 2015, Quarterly Journal of Colored PeopleSpeech, Volume 101, Issue 1, 2015
    Thus, when Žižek
    and has served as an adjunct professor of Race, Gender, and Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute, and Jonathan Hasak is a recent graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, “Look Beyond The Label: Reframing, Reimagining, and Reinvesting in CTE,” American Educator, Fall 2014, https://www.aft.org/ae/fall2014/jackson_hasak
    2. Address the Student-Readiness and Teaching-Training Gaps¶ Despite being
    others urge us to “Act” with violence to
    AND
    greater efficiency, increased student choice, and wider access to education.18
    Social Innovation Financing reduces runaway spending and encourages competition
    Costa 11. Kristina Costa, Special Assistant at
    now include the Center for American Progress. 10-19-2011 "Financing Tools for Social Innovation," Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/2011/10/19/10435/innovation-for-the-public-good-financing-tools-for-social-innovation/ /adres
    Last week we examined why strong leadership
    hard laborto produce alternative visions that appear materially feasible.
    Using certain normative concepts
    is essentialcritical to convince others that they’re wrong
    Schwartz 8. Joseph, Professor of Political Science at Temple University, “The Future of Democratic Equality,” 56-61
    According
    to public-sector innovation.**this consequentialist moral logic, “bad means” are only justifiable if
    AND
    Next week we’ll consider what makes an agency’s culture most able to innovate.moral responsibility has covertly snuck its way back into Butler’s political strategy.52
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    Field questions to: tedshi09@gmail.com

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  6. page Ted and Max edited FFRSV MS - Aff FFRSV MS - Neg
    FFRSV MS - Aff
    FFRSV MS - Neg

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    8:33 pm
  7. page home edited ... Anish and Auggie (BCPPR) Josh and Devansh Ted and Max HJPV Matt and Reznick
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    Anish and Auggie (BCPPR)
    Josh and Devansh
    Ted and Max
    HJPV
    Matt and Reznick
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    8:32 pm
  8. page home edited ... Josh and Devansh HJPV Matt and Reznik Reznick Jack and Jack Devanshi and Katherine
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    Josh and Devansh
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    Matt and ReznikReznick
    Jack and Jack
    Devanshi and Katherine
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  9. page Max and Roland  edited Affirmative (mwang6361@gmail.com): Desegregation (Primary) (Aff v Classic) The Advantage is D…

    Affirmative (mwang6361@gmail.com):
    Desegregation (Primary) (Aff v Classic)
    The Advantage is Desegregation
    School segregation is still rampant —- tolerating this, whether in the name of "educational quality" or "school choice" just lets racism win —- the constitution demands that public institutions comply with the law
    ...
    AND
    time, far more central to policy debates in elementary and secondary education.
    ...
    by isolation.
    Halstead 6/22
    (John Halstead, 6-22-2017, "Our Fear Of Black Men Is Racist, And It Killed Philando Castile", http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/our-fear-of-black-men-is-racist-and-it-killed-philando_us_594aeb77e4b092ed90588b75, MW)
    ...
    AND
    which may in turn provide desegregated educational opportunities for their own children. n149
    ...
    utilitarianism incoherent
    Memmi, 2k —- Professor Emeritus of Sociology @ U of Paris, Naiteire (Albert, Racism, Translated by Steve Martinot, p. 163-165)
    The struggle against racism will be long, difficult, without intermission, without remission
    ...
    Funds research, development, and policy replication to preserve and strengthen federal, state, and local efforts to protect equal access to educational opportunities
    Includes the provision of transportation and construction funding to suburban schools, while also increasing school funding for inner-city schools
    Solvency
    The plan is a comprehensive mechanism to address racial segregation in public education —- congressional action is critical
    Epperson, 12 —- Associate Professor of Law, American University Washington College of Law (Winter 2012, Lia, Harvard Law & Policy Review, "SYMPOSIUM: EDUCATION: EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY: Legislating Inclusion," 6 Harv. L. & Pol'y Rev. 91, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
    ...
    - DOE
    AND
    ...
    and un-equal.'"
    Negative (rolandhkim@gmail.com):
    Counterplans:
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    7:06 pm

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