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Contention 1 is civic engagement

The aff is key to stable democracy – spreads global

Nuccio 7’– Director of Civitas International Programs at the Center for Civic Education (Richard, “Promoting Civic Behavior through Civic Education,” Presented at the National Symposium on ‘The Role of the National System of Education in Promoting Civic Behaviour.’ May 23-24, 2007. http://www.civiced.org/pdfs/PromotingCivicBehavior.pdf)
Asia. The wide acceptance of Project Citizen throughout some of the most populous states
students and classrooms have great validity in translation and adaptation in other countries.

Democracy is key to international stability and prevents conflicts.

Basora and Yalowitz17 -- director of the Foreign Policy Research Institute Eurasia Program AND director of the Conflict Resolution Program at Georgetown( Adrian and Kenneth, “Democracy Promotion Is Smart Security Policy”, , 2/16/2017, http://nationalinterest.org/feature/democracy-promotion-smart-security-policy-19469)
We cannot “make America great again” unless America is secureboth at home
important than being true to American values and principles and protecting them globally.

Independently – democracy solves food shortages

Agbor, research fellow at the Africa Growth Initiative in the Global Economy and Development program, 11
(Julius, and Nelipher Moyo, “Democratic Governance Is Critical to Averting Famines in Africa,” http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2011/09/26-democratic-governance-agbor, ava)
Evidence suggestsmost of the famines recently witnessed in Africa have been largely due to
demanding effective governance institutions and supporting institutions with similar goals on the continent.

Food shortages trigger nuclear escalation

FDI 12 (Future Directions International, a Research institute providing strategic analysis of Australia’s global interests; citing Lindsay Falvery, PhD in Agricultural Science and former Professor at the University of Melbourne’s Institute of Land and Environment, “Food and Water Insecurity: International Conflict Triggers & Potential Conflict Points,” http://www.futuredirections.org.au/workshop-papers/537-international-conflict-triggers-and-potential-conflict-points-resulting-from-food-and-water-insecurity.html)
There is a growing appreciationthat the conflicts in the next century will most likely
identify famine as a potential trigger for conflicts and possibly even nuclear war.

Thus the plan: The United States federal government should require elementary and secondary schools to civically educate students

Contention 2 is judicial independence

Judicial independence is being challenged in the status quo

Davis 2-12
Julie Hirschfeld Davis is a White House correspondent at The New York Times. She has covered politics from Washington for 19 years, writing on Congress, three presidential campaigns and three presidents. She joined the Times in 2014 after stints at Bloomberg News, the Associated Press, The Baltimore Sun and Congressional Quarterly. Julie is the 2009 winner of the Everett McKinley Dirksen Award for Distinguished Reporting of Congress for her coverage of the federal response to the 2008 financial meltdown. She attended Yale University., 2-12-2017, "Richard Rorty’s prescient warnings for the American left," Vox, https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2017/2/9/14543938/richard-rorty-liberalism-vietnam-donald-trump-obama///jrg
The spectacle of a Supreme Court nominee breaking so starkly with the president who named
, he added, and in those instances, “I always cringed.”

A federal ruling on civic education solves and is key to an independent judiciary through a re-emphasis on social studies

Savit 9
Savit, Eli, maintains a policy portfolio that encompasses, among other things, issues pertaining to consumer protection, education, environmental justice, infrastructure development, and public safety. As counsel, Savit advises the mayor on legal issues concerning the mayor and his administration. Working with the city's law department, Savit also spearheads special legal projects on behalf of the City of Detroit. Savit served as a law clerk for Justices Sandra Day O'Connor (ret.) and Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Savit previously practiced law with two major national law firms, focusing on appellate and Supreme Court litigation., 5-2009, "CAN COURTS REPAIR THE CRUMBLING FOUNDATION OF GOOD CITIZENSHIP? AN EXAMINATION OF POTENTIAL LEGAL CHALLENGES TO SOCIAL STUDIES CUTBACKS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS," Michigan Law Review, http://search.proquest.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/pqrl/docview/201134961/fulltextPDF/6B56254EF173413BPQ/1?accountid=14667
The de-emphasis of social studies in American schools has been widely criticized on
students are the legislative definition of “education” in the state constitution.

Supreme Court rulings about civic education reaffirm judicial supremacy – empirics

Epperson 14 (Lia Epperson, Professor of Law and Associate Dean for Faculty & Academic Affairs, American University, Washington College of Law, “BROWN'S DREAM DEFERRED: LESSONS ON DEMOCRACY AND IDENTITY FROM COOPER V. AARON TO THE "SCHOOL-TO-PRISON PIPELINE”, Wake Forest Law Review Vol. 49, accessed 7/10/17 NLB)
COOPER'S LEGACY: LESSONS ON DEMOCRACY AND IDENTITY The constitutional rights of [black children
disavowal of state-inspired violence as a mechanism to thwart educational opportunity.

That’s key to global modeling – only Supreme Court solves

Krotoszynski, 2009 (Ronald J. John C. Stone Chair, Director of Faculty Research, and Professor of Law, University of Alabama School of Law. The Perils and the Promise of Comparative Constitutional Law: The New Globalism and the Role of the United States in Shaping Human Rights. Arkansas Law Review 2009. http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezproxy .samford.edu/hottopics/lnacademic/? 06/24/2015. clj)
Only a few years ago, former Chief Justice Aharon Barak, of the Supreme
look to developments in theUnited States as a source of inspiration." n12

Dialogue and exchanges prove – Countries model Supreme Court

LUÍS ROBERTO BARROSO, 2012 (Professor of Constitutional Law, Rio de Janeiro State University, Spring, 2012, Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, 35 B.C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 331, L/N, “HERE, THERE, AND EVERYWHERE: HUMAN DIGNITY IN CONTEMPORARY LAW AND IN THE TRANSNATIONAL DISCOURSE,” rwg)
In recent years, constitutional and supreme courts all over the world have begun engaging
is, as with any other exchange, a two-way street.

Causation is empirically proven – Aff leads to similar judicial activism globally

Van Schaack, 2004 Assistant Prof. of Law @ Santa Clara University School of Law, Vanderbilt Law Review, November, (Beth, 57 Vand. L. Rev. 2305; Lexis)
Nonetheless, domestic civil litigation in the U.S. plays a part where
. can trigger similar judicial responses in the home countries of defendants. n136

Scenario 1: China

Specifically, China models their Judiciary after US judiciary

Harvard Law Review 16 – (“Chinese Common Law? Guiding Cases and Judicial Reform,” Harvard Law Review Vol 129 : 2213, 6/10/16, https://harvardlawreview.org/2016/06/chinese-common-law-guiding-cases-and-judicial-reform/ ) MK
To be clear, the claim of the previous subsection was not that commentators who
to assert greater SPC authority// by developing a body of model interpretive approaches.

Lack of judicial independence risks undermining CCP stability

McPHERSON ‘08 (Stephen L.; Ph.D. Candidate in International Studies – Old Dominion University and Former Instructor and Assistant Dean of Law – Regent University, “Crossing the River by Feeling the Stones: The Path to Judicial Independence in China,” 26 Penn St. Int’l L. Rev. 787, Spring, l/n)
Judicial independence is an essential ingredient to the preservation and legitimacy of the CCP.
The CCP can accomplish this by moving towards an independent judiciary.

The impact is an unprecedented global disaster — lack of CCP legitimacy goes nuclear

David 8 — Steven R. David, Professor of Political Science and Vice Dean for Centers and Programs at the Johns Hopkins University, holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from Harvard University, 2008 (“China: Collapse of a Great Power,” Catastrophic Consequences: Civil Wars and American Interests, Published by The Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 080188988X, p. 116-121)
While some American policymakers would greet the prospect of a China mired in internal conflict
-American confrontation could well be the unintended outcome of Chinese civil conflict.

Specifically, Judicial Independence is key to U.S.-Sino Relations

SCOTT ‘08 (Mark A.; “China’s Influence on the American Legal System Resulting from China’s Rise to Power,” 32 Suffolk Transnat’l L. Rev. 51, Winter, l/n)
Although China's economic growth has increased the need for legal reform, many critics complain
China a greater basis to influence the U.S. legal system.

That solves Korean Stability – goes nuclear without close US china relations

Gady 16(Franz-Stefan Gady is an Associate Editor with The Diplomat, a Senior Fellow with the EastWest Institute, and has worked previously as an adjunctx research assistant at the Institute for National Strategies Studies of the National Defense University in Washington, D.C., an analyst for the Project on National Security Reform, a congressionally funded nonprofit organization founded to reform the national security structure of the United States. He holds an M.A. in Strategic Studies/International Economics. “Sino-US Cooperation Over North Korea Is Now More Important Than Ever,” The Diplomat, March 19, 2016, http://thediplomat.com/2016/03/sino-us-cooperation-over-north-korea-is-now-more-important-than-ever/)
China and the United States share the same short-term interests on the Korean
Sino-US diplomatic effort. Indeed, it is a political necessity.

US China Relations are key to stopping nuclear modernization – solves global nuclear war

Gross, 13- adjunct fellow of Pacific Forum CSIS, former Senior Advisor to the Under Secretary for International Security Affairs in the Department of State, former Counselor of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (Donald, The China Fallacy: How the U.S. Can Benefit from China’s Rise and Avoid Another Cold War, p. 62
Shaping China’s military development Improved relations with China would allow the U.S.
an arms control regime that considerably lowers the risk of nuclear war.44

Scenario 2: Terror

Independent judiciaries are key to prevent terrorism.

Findley and Young 11 (Michael, assistant prof of polisci at Brigham Young University with a research emphasis in terrorism and development. Joseph, Associate Professor at American University with a joint appointment in the School of Public Affairs and the School of International Service. “Terrorism, Democracy, and Credible Commitments,” International Studies Quarterly. Vol. 55 No. 2, spring 2011. Wiley Online Lirbrary.)//CB
Political institutions are an important part of an explanation of terrorism precisely because different institutions
and Rubin 1983; Ho, Imai, King, and Stuart 2007).

WMD terrorism is possible and leads to international retaliation and war – groups have the capabilities

Robert S. Litwak October 2016 ( vice president for scholars and director of international security studies at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. He is also a consultant to the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Dr. Litwak served on the National Security Council staff as director for nonproliferation in the first Clinton administration. He was an adjunct professor in the Security Studies Program at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service and has held visiting fellowships at Harvard University’s Center for International Affairs, the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Oxford University. Dr. Litwak is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and received a doctorate in international relations from the London School of Economics. “Deterring Nuclear Terrorism” Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/deterring_nuclear_terrorism_robert_litwak.pdf//)MBA HBJ
The increasing lethality of terrorism promoted the emerging linkage of the terrorism and proliferation agendas
not weapons-grade, could presumably be utilized in a radiological device.

Scenario 3: Disease

Independent judiciaries are key to fighting global disease spread

Greco 5 (Michael S., President – American Bar Association, Miami Daily Business Review, 52.42, 12-5, Factiva)
What makes the rule of law so important that it attracted such a distinguished community
for an independent, nonpartisan commission to investigate our treatment of such prisoners.


Bar-Yam 16 (Yaneer, MIT PhD, Founding President of the New England Complex Systems Institute, PhD in Physics, “Transition to extinction: Pandemics in a connected world,” NECSI, July 3, 2016, http://necsi.edu/research/social/pandemics/transition)
Watch as one of the more aggressive – brighter red  –  strains rapidly
event happens in mass transportation, an outbreak could very well prove unstoppable.

Scenario 4: Trump

Court independence is necessary to uphold separation of powers

Nelson and Ringsmuth 13 – Kjersten R., Associate Professor of Criminal Justice and Political Science at North Dakota State University, and Eve M., Associate Professor of Political Science at Oklahoma State University “ Inter-Institutional Dynamics: Assessments of the Supreme Court in a Separation of Powers Context,” Political Behavior Vol 35 No. 2 June 2013 pages 357-382//ninerz
The manner in which the Supreme Court should promote "fundamental law" in the
and Gibson 1992; Durr et al. 2000; Gibson 2007).4

That checks trump – only supreme court can do it

Michaels 16 – Jon, professor of law at UCLA, “The Founders anticipated Trump. We can handle this.,” LA Times, 11/11/16, http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-michaels-checks-balances-trump-20161111-story.htmlninerz
What I told them is what I believe. Our Framers anticipated the rise of
the courts should take note of that threat, and take it seriously.

Unchecked Trump causes nuclear lashout and warming

Chomsky ’17 – (Noam, “Noam Chomsky: With Trump Election, We Are Now Facing Threats to the Survival of the Human Species”, https://www.democracynow.org/2017/1/2/noam_chomsky_with_trump_election_we//JC)
NOAM CHOMSKY: For the young people among you, a special word: You’ll
if the human experiment is not to prove to be a disastrous failure.

Warming causes extinction

Simpson 13 (Larry Simpson is an Emeritus Professor who did research and teaching at the University of California in Los Angeles regarding biology; Mark Lynas is a researcher at the Cornell Alliance for Science, advisor on climate change to the President of the Maldives, environment activist and writer, a frequent speaker around the world on climate change, biotechnology and nuclear power, a Visiting Research Associate at Oxford University’s School of Geography and the Environment, a member of the advisory board of the science advocacy group Sense About Science, and a Visiting Fellow at Cornell University’s Office of International Programs at the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences; “Several degrees of warming”; http://larry-thoughtsandmusings.blogspot.com/2013/11/several-degrees-of-warming.html;)
BETWEEN TWO AND THREE DEGREES OF WARMING Up to this point, assuming that governments
reaches two degrees and triggers carbon-cycle feedbacks from soils and plants.

States fail—multiple reasons

Kidwell 05’ (Frances L. Kidwell Ed.D, is a CSU, Chico Instructor, a University Supervisor and an Education Consultant/Curriculum Specialist in civic education, social studies, literacy, cognitive development, and administration. "The Relationship between Civic Education and State Policy: An Evaluative Study." Order No. 3180389 University of Southern California, 2005. Ann Arbor: ProQuest, LW, accessed 6 July 2017)
Lack of state support has certainly helped to determine the current status of civic education
the curriculum d

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Native students in BIE schools are subject to abhorrent conditions including carbon monoxide poisoning

Melmer 16. David; 3/14/16; Operator of Indianz.com, a blog formed in a partnership with Lakota Immersion Daycare, citing three GAO studies and a House Investigation on BIA accountability; Indianz.com, “Bureau of Indian Affairs slammed for safety conditions at schools,” https://www.indianz.com/News/2016/03/14/bureau-of-indian-affairs-slamm.asp
The Bureau of Indian Affairs doesn't know the true health and safety conditions at schools
explanation for why repairs took significantly longer than Indian Affairs’ required time frames."

A lack of funding is the key reason – schools are understaffed and overstretched

Melmer 16. David; 3/14/16; Operator of Indianz.com, a blog formed in a partnership with Lakota Immersion Daycare, citing three GAO studies and a House Investigation on BIA accountability; Indianz.com, “Bureau of Indian Affairs slammed for safety conditions at schools,” https://www.indianz.com/News/2016/03/14/bureau-of-indian-affairs-slamm.asp
"Congress needs to spend whatever it takes to fix these schools," Rep.
appropriate the funding to carry out those projects in the coming fiscal years.

Funding is critical to fulfill Native requests for self-determination and spills to other areas

NCAI 13. National Congress of American Indians; 4/19/13; Organized legal body representing Native Americans, citing multiple GAO, BIE, and Congressional commission reports; NCAI, “A Call to Honor the Promises To Tribal Nations in the Federal Budget,” http://www.ncai.org/resources/ncai_publications/honor-the-promises-the-tribal-nations-in-the-federal-budget
As Congress and the Administration debate elements of various budget proposals for fiscal year (
sources, 2.5 times higher than for state and local governments.

The plan enables tribal self-management

GAO 17. Government Accountability Office; 5/24/17; Federal agency in charge of oversight and recommendations for other United States offices, citing and conducting a multi-year meta-study on tribal schools under the DOI; GAO, “Actions Needed to Better Manage Indian School Construction Projects,” http://www.gao.gov/assets/690/684894.pdf
Once funding for BIE school construction and repair is available, tribes may choose to
before funds are disbursed and to provide technical assistance when it is requested.

Plan: The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of elementary and secondary public and Bureau of Indian Education schools for comprehensive and equitable resources, delegating all implementation decisions to Native communities


Pragmatic epistemological accounts in the context of indigeneity are important – the status quo maintains the baseless essentialism of Native bodies

Nakata et. al. 12. Martin Nakata is the director of Nura Gili at the University of New South Wales, Victoria works at the Nura Gili centre for Indigenous Programs, Sarah Geech is lecturer at the Nura Gili Centre and has a PhD from the School of Education at the University of New South Wales, Reuben Bolt is an associate professor at the Nura Gili Centre, 2012, “Decolonial Goals and Pedagogies for Indigenous Studies”, Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012 pp. 120-140
In Indigenous Studies, simplistic critique of the Western has had a tendency toward reductive
the Academy, albeit often in the form of inclusive patronisation or tolerance.

Talking about the affirmative in academia is important – the alternative is silence which maintains settler futurity

Calderon 14. Dolores Calderon is a Native American studies professor at the University of Utah, Mexican and Tigua Badass, 7/28/2014, “Uncovering Settler Grammars in Curriculum”, Educational Studies: A Journal of the American Education Studies Association, Vol. 50, Issue 4 – De/colonizing, (Post)(Anti)colonial, and Indigenous Education, Studies, and Theories
Settler societies claim to be founded by migrant groups (immigrant nation) that build
rely on grammars of empty lands and settler superiority to support settler expansion.

Prefer valid, descriptive theories of the world as a form of explanatory critique – epistemic shifts from Eurocentric thought are impossible without reclaiming the concept of objectivity

Jones 4. August 2004, Branwen Gruffydd, PhD in Development Studies from the University of Sussex, Senior Lecturer in International Political Economy at Goldsmiths University of London, “From Eurocentrism to Epistemological Internationalism: power, knowledge and objectivity in International Relations,” Paper presented at Theorising Ontology, Annual Conference of the International Association for Critical Realism, University of Cambridge, http://www.csog.group.cam.ac.uk/iacr/papers/Jones.pdf
The rejection of positivism which is a central element of recent critiques of mainstream IR
, genocide and dispossession which have characterised European expansion over five hundred years.

Pragmatism centered on weak-ontological claims is the best process for political contestation

Nyman, Teaching Fellow in International Relations at the University of Leicester, UK, ‘16
(Jonna, “Pragmatism, practice and the value of security,” in Ethical Security Studies: A new research agenda, Routledge, pg. 139-141)
A pragmatic, practice-centred approach can help us return to the original forces
class or a post-national constellation. (Brassett 2009a: 242)

The affirmative is an ethos of specific intellectualism – working within the power relations of existing institutions and engaging in role experimentation enables a large-scale politics of swarming that unsettles entrenched relationships of power in favor of a better future

Connolly 17. William Connolly, Krieger-Eisenhower Professor of Political Science at Johns Hopkins University, Facing the Planetary: Entangled Humanism and the Politics of Swarming, Duke University Press, 2017, 125-129
Perhaps in the contemporary situation too a politics of swarming provides the most promising pursuit
repression, and scapegoating. The stakes of a swarming approach are high.

Scenario analysis is pedagogically valuable – enhances creativity and self-reflexivity while deconstructing cognitive biases and flawed assumptions

Barma et al. 16.Naazneen, UC Berkeley political science PhD, “Imagine a World in Which’: Using Scenarios in Political Science”, International Studies Perspectives 17 (2), pp. 1-19, http://www.naazneenbarma.com/uploads/2/9/6/9/29695681/using_scenarios_in_political_science_isp_2015.pdf
Over the past decade, the “cult of irrelevance” in political science scholarship
analysts from anticipating and understanding the pivotal junctures that arise in international affairs.

No scientific basis for affect – psychological orientations are a result of social surroundings – evaluate material consequences before rhetorical ones

Martin 13. Professor in the Department of Anthropology @ New York University, Emily, “The Potentiality of Ethnography and the Limits of Affect Theory,” Current Anthropology: Vol. 54, No. S7
Many scholars in the humanities have recently engaged with research in neuroscienceto posit a
the material brain and those neurological interactions that are necessary to reproduce it.

Detail-oriented politics are key to effective reforms – vague proposals collapse to totalitarianism
Condit 15. Celeste, Distinguished Research Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Georgia, “Multi-Layered Trajectories for Academic Contributions to Social Change,” Feb 4, 2015, Quarterly Journal of Speech, Volume 101, Issue 1, 2015
Thus, when Žižek and others urge us to “Act” with violence to
now include the hard laborto produce alternative visions that appear materially feasible.

Using certain normative concepts is critical to convince others that they’re wrong

Schwartz 8. Joseph, Professor of Political Science at Temple University, “The Future of Democratic Equality,” 56-61
According to this consequentialist moral logic, “bad means” are only justifiable if
moral responsibility has covertly snuck its way back into Butler’s political strategy.52
evelopment cycle. Once again, time is a villainous factor.