***Note: Ye has been a 2A for the majority of camp- he has only competed as a 2N in one round- round details are below
Past 2NRs- the states CP


1AC DISCLOSURE: Desegregation, Civic Education, Solvency

====The United States federal government, including the Department of Education and Department of Justice should impose and enforce disparate impact regulations on K-12 educational institutions receiving federal financial assistance, including a presumption against a school system's choice to assign students in a way that would lead to racial isolation, where non-isolating steps are available.====

**Note: the Willie card will be taken out and then replaced with either impact framing (structural violence first) or another fed key warrant. Thank you

email for questions


====U.S. schools still face rampant segregation —- reviving federal intervention is critical to reverse the trend====Scott, 16 —- Ranking Member on the Committee on Education
luding Citylab (7/24/14, Daniel, "You've probably never heard of one of the worst Supreme Court decisions; But we're still dealing with its awful legacy,", accessed on 5/14/17, JMP)Forty years ago this month, the Supreme Court released one of its most villainousAND: that it wasn't a necessary task, morally. They were wrong.

====Segregation is decimating minority students opportunity to receive a quality education====
Hertz, 14 —- masters student in public policy at the University of Chicago, has written about urban affairs for several publications, including Citylab (7/24/14, Daniel, "You've probably never heard of one of the worst Supreme Court decisions; But we're still dealing with its awful legacy,", accessed on 5/14/17, JMP)
Forty years ago this month, the Supreme Court released one of its most villainous
: that it wasn't a necessary task, morally. They were wrong.

====Making exceptions to desegregation, whether in the name of "educational quality" or "school choice" just lets racism win —- the constitution demands that public institutions comply with the law====Black, 6/6/17 —- Professor of Law, University of South Carolina (Derek, "Education in America Has Deep Flaws—and That's Why Racial Segregation Is on the Rise," our base fears and racial biases begin to fade into the background.

====Challenging institutional racism is a prior ethical question— it makes violence structurally inevitable and foundationally negates morality making defenses of utilitarianism incoherent ====Memmi, 2k —- Professor Emeritus of Sociology @ U of Paris, Naiteire (Albert, Racism, Translated by Steve Martinot, p. 163-165)The struggle against racism will be long, difficult, without intermission, without remissionAND. True, it is a wager, but the stakes are irresistible.

====Inequality kills tens of thousands each year====Bezruchka, '14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University ("Inequality Kills," Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The ANDsimply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.

====U.S. legal changes are modeled by other countries —- civil rights protections in education are critical to overall equality —- they help sustain social movements====Willie, 14 —- professor emeritus at the Harvard Ed School, served as a consultant, expert witness, and court-appointed master in major school desegregation cases in cities such as Boston, Hartford, Dallas, Denver, Houston, Kansas City, Little Rock, Milwaukee, San Jose, Seattle, and St. Louis (6/4/14, Charlies, "Brown at 60 and Milliken at 40,", accessed on 5/14/17, JMP)Michelle Obama has reminded us to remember this: "Movements for real and lasting ANDthat is similar in some ways to the Constitution of the United States.

====Desegregation is the best way to narrow achievement gap —- just making separate schools better isn't sufficient====Theoharis 15 – PHD and a chair in the School of Education at Syracuse(George, 10/23/15, "'Forced busing' didn't fail. Desegregation is the best way to improve our schools.",, MW)Since the Reagan administration's "A Nation at Risk" report pronounced that schools across ANDthe back of the education bus, it will always be the back.

====Closing the academic achievement gap directly challenges social inequality and boosts health outcomes====Lynch & Oakford, 14 —- *professor of economics in the Department of Economics at Washington, AND **Policy Analyst at the Center for American Progress (Robert & Patrick, "The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps; Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color,", accessed on 7/1/16, funk+JMP)Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are ANDand ethnic achievement gaps could amply pay for themselves in the long run.

1ac Civic Education Adv

====Re-segregation provided the foundation for Trump's rise to power —- reforming education policies is essential to transform society and check racial scapegoating ====Klein 16 - education reporter for HuffPost(Rebecca Klein, 11-15-2016, "What School Segregation Has To Do With The Rise Of Donald Trump",, MW)Donald Trump's personal life ― in all likelihood ― has not been directly impacted by ANDeasy for people to let their fears dominate how they view the world."

====Integration ensures a healthy democracy by signaling political equality, promoting tolerance, and boosting educational attainment====Kahlenberg and Janey 16 – Kahlenberg is a senior fellow at The Century Foundation with expertise in education, civil rights, and equal opportunity and Janey is a senior research scholar at Boston University's School of Education.(Richard and Clifford, 11/10/16, "Putting Democracy Back into Public Education",, MW)School Integration in Cambridge, Massachusetts; Rochester, New York; and Elsewhere. ANDthan 32 percent of those with less than a high school education.118

====Also ensures more engaged minority participation in the political process —- which is key to check authoritarianism====Campoy, 16 (Ana Campoy, "US schools can rescue civics education, if only the left and the right will let them", Quartz, 12-11-2016, Accessed 6-29-2017,'s founding fathers viewed education as an essential tool for preserving democracy. In schoolAND, or any other methods, if they want to preserve their democracy.

====Trump regime threatens the lives of millions and emboldens white supremacists – active political engagement is critical to resistance ====Creamer, 16 —- partner in Democracy Partners and a Senior Strategist for Americans United for Change (11/9/16, Robert, "What Now For Progressives?", we can't sugar coat the magnitude of the disaster. Trump's election has ANDgoing to be casualties they need to be inflicted in battles we initiate.

====Political nihilism spreads beyond the classroom – it empowers violent conservatives like Trump – forsaking compromise is a dangerous, academic luxury====Claudio, 16 —- assistant professor of development studies and southeast Asian studies at the Ateneo de Manila University (7/1/2016, Lisandro, "Intellectuals have ushered the world into a dangerous age of political nihilism," the surface, it would seem that intellectuals have nothing to do with the ANDus have to figure out what to do with the one we have.

1AC Solvency

===Federally enforced regulations are key to desegregation —- government agencies have superior expertise, information gathering, compliance monitoring, and planning====Landsberg, 16 —- Professor Emeritus, Pacific McGeorge School of Law (Brian K., Fall 2016, Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy, "LEE V. MACON COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION: THE POSSIBILITIES OF FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT OF EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY," 12 Duke J. Const. Law & Pub. Pol'y 1, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP) *Note – HEW

United States Department of Health, Education and WelfareV. The Significance of Lee v. Macon County Board of Education A. ANDand DOE to renew legal efforts to overcome racial isolation in the schools.

====Desegregation links ongoing racial disparities with historic racial discrimination and challenges white supremacy —- advances equality in prisons, mental health facilities, housing authorities, and police departments====
Holley-Walker, 12** —- Associate Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law, J.D. from Harvard (Winter 2012, Danielle, Georgia State University Law Review, "A NEW ERA FOR DESEGREGATION," 28 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 423, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
to refocus our education reform on equality as a core value.

====Federal signal creates local buy-in and accountability to ensure effective enforcement ====Robinson, 16 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "FISHER'S CAUTIONARY TALE AND THE URGENT NEED FOR EQUAL ACCESS TO AN EXCELLENT EDUCATION" 130 Harv. L. Rev. 185, November, lexis)The federal government must establish equal access to an excellent education as an urgent national ANDthat legislative reform consistent with my proposal is unlikely in the near term.