1ac -- version 1

1ac state budgets adv


Contention 1 is state budgets –



State budget shortfalls slow economic growth and ensure they lack sufficient revenue to fund pensions

Donlan 17 [Thomas G. Donlan, editor at Barron’s, “There’s a Hole in State Pensions,” Feb 11, 2017, http://www.barrons.com/articles/theres-a-hole-in-state-pensions-1486794298]
Turn away from the lurid deficit spectacles in Washington to examine the declining state of
AND
a firm arguing for tougher standards “may be disqualified from further consideration.”

Left unchecked, state pensions will be the next subprime mortgage crisis --- investors are already downgrading state credit

Booth 17 [Danielle DiMartino Booth, President of MoneyStrong, former Federal Reserve insider, March 24, 2017, “Pension Crisis Too Big for Markets to Ignore,” Bloomberg, https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-03-24/pension-crisis-too-big-for-markets-to-ignore]
In late 2006, Aaron Krowne, a computer scientist and mathematician, started a
AND
that shield their portfolios? Or will it be none of the above?

That collapses the US economy

Reeves 3/24 [Jeff Reeves is a stock analyst and executive editor of InvestorPlace.com. His commentary has also appeared on CNBC, Fox Business, USA Today, and the Wall Street Journal network, “Your pension could be at the center of America's next financial crisis,” March 24, 2017, http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/finance/325564-the-pension-crisis-will-be-americas-next-financial-crisis]
I’m not a fan of the “greed is good” mentality of Wall Street
AND
need Social Security, even in an imperfect form, well beyond 2034?

CTE stimulates economic growth through a staggering multiplier effect and rescues state budgets

Ogul 17 – writer for Orlando Sentinel (David, “How to improve a state economy through technical education”, 2/17/17, Orlando Sentinel, http://www.orlandosentinel.com/brandpublishing/forstudentsnotprofit/os-how-to-improve-a-state-economy-20170217-story.html//GHS-AK)
For every dollar Wisconsin taxpayers invest in their technical college system, they get back
AND
. “We have been very fortunate and very pleased with their performance.”

Federal CTE funding critical to avoid impending budget crisis and stimulate economic growth

CCD 17, [Published by the American Association of Community Colleges, 6-23-2017, "Governors support CTE, job-training funding – Community College Daily," Community College Daily, http://www.ccdaily.com/2017/05/governors-support-cte-job-training-funding/]
The National Governors Association (NGA) doesn’t often wade into debates over federal appropriations
AND
to ensure students are prepared for a 21st century economy,” NGA said.

States increasing funding on their own would run afoul of balanced-budget requirements and further downgrade their creditworthiness --- only increasing federal block grant spending can solve fiscal shortfalls

Gamage 10 [David Gamage, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), “Preventing State Budget Crises: Managing the Fiscal Volatility Problem,” California Law Review, 98 Calif. L. Rev. 749, June, 2010, lexis]
Politicians generally benefit both from cutting taxes and from increasing spending on popular programs.
AND
balanced budget constraint itself, thereby reducing its potential to provide countercyclical support.

Federal stimulus key to kickstart growth --- fiscal policy has more leverage than monetary policy

Bryan 16 [Bob, Business Insider, “Only one thing that can jumpstart the global economy right now — but no government is willing to do it,” Feb 22, 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2http:www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2]
Global economic growth is sluggish//, to say the least. The low-growth
AND
, Srivastava said such stimulus is being treated as "a last resort."

2 impacts –-


It goes nuclear and causes extinction

Street 16 [Tim, fellow of the Sustainable Security Programme at the Oxford Research Group, previously researcher with the British American Security Information Council, Ph.D. from Warwick University, 11/30/16, “President Trump: Successor to the Nuclear Throne,” http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefing_papers_and_reports/president_trump_successor_nuclear_throne]
Donald Trump’s arrival in the White House as US President has deeply unnerved people from
AND
to widespread anger, confusion and unrest, both at home and abroad.

The impact is diversionary war

Foster 12/19 [Dennis M., professor of international studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, “Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?,” http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home]
If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
AND
ramifications of an economic downturn with a President Trump in the White House.

Second is heg—strong economic growth and leadership checks global conflict

Lieberman and Kyl 15. Joseph Lieberman- senior counsel at Kasowitz Benson Torres and Friedman LLP. Former United States senator and attorney general of the State of Connecticut. Jon Kyl- sat on the powerful Senate Finance Committee, where he was the top Republican on the Subcommittee on Taxation and Internal Revenue Service Oversight, also served as the ranking Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism. “Why American Leadership Still Matters” https://www.aei.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Why-American-Leadership-Still-Matters_online.pdf mba-alb
This report reflects the fundamental consensus of our project’s members that American global leadership is
AND
US business. These issues all underscore the need for stronger US leadership.

1ac skills gap adv


Contention 2 is skills gap—


Scenario 1 is Cyber


The cyber workforce gap makes the US unprepared for a large scale cyber attack now

Kim 5/19. Anne Kim - Senior Writer at the Washington Monthly. She is also a senior fellow at the Aspen Institute’s initiative on financial security and a senior fellow at the Progressive Policy Institute. Before joining the Monthly, Anne served as senior policy strategist at the nonprofit CFED, as the economic program director at the think tank Third Way, and as legislative director and deputy chief of staff to Rep. Jim Cooper – “Trump Is Ignoring America’s Looming Cybersecurity Threat” – 5/19/17 - http://washingtonmonthly.com/2017/05/19/trump-is-ignoring-americas-looming-cybersecurity-threats/ /TK
The “ransomware” attack that crippled computer systems around the globe last week
AND
won’t get the money or the attention it deserves – until too late.

The plan solves - CTE is key to STEM education

Wolfe 6/26. Alexis Wolfe - science policy analyst and writer for FYI and is currently working on expanding FYI’s multimedia portfolio. Prior to joining AIP, she was an Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Fellow and NOAA Sea Grant Knauss Marine Policy Fellow at the U.S. Department of Energy, focusing on science communication – “Career and Technical Education Emerging as Vehicle for STEM in Trump Era” – 6/26/17 - https://www.aip.org/fyi/2017/career-and-technical-education-emerging-vehicle-stem-trump-era /TK
Experiential, work-based career and technical education programs are receiving attention from policymakers
AND
community college students with internship positions at one of 15 national energy laboratories.

CTE creates a sustainable pipeline of cybersecurity workers—solves workforce gap

Kay et al 12. David J. Kay - Research Analystin the Center for Technology andNational Security Policy (CTNSP), Institutefor National Strategic Studies,at the National Defense University;Terry J. Pudas - Senior ResearchFellow in CTNSP; Brett Young -Research Assistant in CTNSP – “Preparing the Pipeline:The U.S. Cyber Workforcefor the Future” – August 2012 - http://ctnsp.dodlive.mil/files/2013/07/DH-072.pdf /TK
It is clear to cyber experts and observers inside and outside government that many of
AND
-, and long-term human capital strategies for government departments and agencies.

Cyber hacks cause accidental nuclear escalation

Van der Meer 16. Sico van der Meer - Research Fellow at the Clingendael Institute. His research is focussing on non-conventional weapons like Weapons of Mass Destruction and cyber weapons from a strategic policy perspective – “Cyber Warfare and Nuclear Weapons: Game-changing Consequences?” – 12/6/16 -https://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/SWP_Paper_Chapter_Sico_van_der_Meer.pdf /TK
Most nuclear weapons systems were designed decades ago, when manipulations of computer
AND
cheaper cyber weapons with more or less the same deterrent effect.

Scenario 2 is Ag


The need for skilled agriculture workers will continue to grow – CTE is critical to a sufficient amount of graduates

Willis 17. Victoria, masters in agricultural education from Clemson University, “Nurturing our Established Roots: The Smith-Hughes Act as a Model for Agricultural Education Career Preparation” The Agricultural Education Magazine Vol 89 Issue 4, January 2017, pg 27 GK
Considering retirement rates, the need to supply the STEM pipeline, and the worlds’
AND//
take on the challenges of the future for the betterment of our society.

CTE solves ag – causes an influx of new workers to sustain the sector

Trexler 16. Tiffany, masters of science in agricultural education from California State University, Chico, “THE ADDITION OF AN AGRICULTURE MECHANICS PATHWAY TO BEAR CREEK HIGH SCHOOL” CSU Chico spring 2016, pgs 12-15 //GK
One of the reasons there is a need to expand CTE in general, but
AND
mechanics pathway was researched and planned, with the intent of rapid adoption.

Severe food shortages are coming now – they ensure multiple paths to extinction – a lack of academic interest increases the odds

Heneghan 15. Carolyn, freelance writer with experience in food and agriculture systems around the world, “Where food crises and global conflict could collide” Fooddive 1/22/15, http://www.fooddive.com/news/where-food-crises-and-global-conflict-could-collide/350837 //GK
World War III is unimaginable for many, but some experts believe that not only
AND
find ways to solve the problem before it becomes something they cannot control.

US agriculture ships internationally – that’s key to global food security

Edmark 15. Dave, U of A System Division of Agriculture, “Food security vital for national interests, world markets,” Cattle News Network 10/23/15, http://www.cattlenetwork.com/news/food- security-vital- national-interests- world-markets //GK
Improving global food security should be a U.S. priority because it is
AND
companies spending $8 billion to build infrastructure and supply chains in Africa.

Food shortages trigger nuclear escalation

FDI 12. Future Directions International, a Research institute providing strategic analysis of Australia’s global interests; citing Lindsay Falvery, PhD in Agricultural Science and former Professor at the University of Melbourne’s Institute of Land and Environment, “Food and Water Insecurity: International Conflict Triggers & Potential Conflict Points,” http://www.futuredirections.org.au/workshop-papers/537-international-conflict-triggers-and-potential-conflict-points-resulting-from-food-and-water-insecurity.html
There is a growing appreciationthat the conflicts in the next century will most likely
AND
identify famine as a potential trigger for conflicts and possibly even nuclear war.

Thus the plan:


The United States federal government should substantially increase career and technical education formula grants for public secondary education, including a Career and Technical Education Pathways Trust Fund supplemented by Social Innovation Financing.


1ac cte plan/solvency


The plan galvanizes private sector support for secondary CTE education through social innovation financing and competitive grants

Hasak 16 [Jonathan Hasak is a Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a former Teach for America corps member who taught in the Oakland Unified School District, “A summer surprise: the case for CTE reform,” 7/1/16, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/286111-a-summer-surprise-the-case-for-cte-reform]
Social innovation financing – gov. pays for demonstrated success [performance based investments]
AND
remaining days in session to reauthorize the Perkins Career and Technical Education Act.

Linking high schools to CTE programs administered by the private sector ensures the development of a workforce that overcomes looming productivity and skills gaps

Jackson and Hasak 14 [John H. Jackson is the president and CEO of the Schott Foundation for Public Education, held leadership positions at the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and has served as an adjunct professor of Race, Gender, and Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute, and Jonathan Hasak is a recent graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, “Look Beyond The Label: Reframing, Reimagining, and Reinvesting in CTE,” American Educator, Fall 2014, https://www.aft.org/ae/fall2014/jackson_hasak]
2. Address the Student-Readiness and Teaching-Training Gaps
Despite being
AND
greater efficiency, increased student choice, and wider access to education.18

Social innovation financing reduces runaway spending and encourages competition

Costa 11 [Kristina Costa, Special Assistant at the Center for American Progress. 10-19-2011 "Financing Tools for Social Innovation," Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/2011/10/19/10435/innovation-for-the-public-good-financing-tools-for-social-innovation/] /adres
Last week we examined why strong leadership is essential to public-sector innovation.
AND
Next week we’ll consider what makes an agency’s culture most able to innovate.

Federal action is critical – states can’t borrow

Timothy J. Bartik, 9- Senior Economist @ Uphjonh Institute for Employment Research (Working Paper 09-15, “How Policymakers Should Deal with the Delayed Benefits of Early Childhood Programs”)
One obvious way to reduce short-run costs of early childhood programs is to
AND
of government financing. The political winds might not support such government borrowing.


1ac -- version #2


1ac state budgets adv


Contention 1 is state budgets –



State budget shortfalls slow economic growth and ensure they lack sufficient revenue to fund pensions

Donlan 17 [Thomas G. Donlan, editor at Barron’s, “There’s a Hole in State Pensions,” Feb 11, 2017, http://www.barrons.com/articles/theres-a-hole-in-state-pensions-1486794298]
Turn away from the lurid deficit spectacles in Washington to examine the declining state of
AND
a firm arguing for tougher standards “may be disqualified from further consideration.”

Left unchecked, state pensions will be the next subprime mortgage crisis --- investors are already downgrading state credit

Booth 17 [Danielle DiMartino Booth, President of MoneyStrong, former Federal Reserve insider, March 24, 2017, “Pension Crisis Too Big for Markets to Ignore,” Bloomberg, https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-03-24/pension-crisis-too-big-for-markets-to-ignore]
In late 2006, Aaron Krowne, a computer scientist and mathematician, started a
AND
that shield their portfolios? Or will it be none of the above?

That collapses the US economy

Reeves 3/24 [Jeff Reeves is a stock analyst and executive editor of InvestorPlace.com. His commentary has also appeared on CNBC, Fox Business, USA Today, and the Wall Street Journal network, “Your pension could be at the center of America's next financial crisis,” March 24, 2017, http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/finance/325564-the-pension-crisis-will-be-americas-next-financial-crisis]
I’m not a fan of the “greed is good” mentality of Wall Street
AND
need Social Security, even in an imperfect form, well beyond 2034?

CTE stimulates economic growth through a staggering multiplier effect and rescues state budgets

Ogul 17 – writer for Orlando Sentinel (David, “How to improve a state economy through technical education”, 2/17/17, Orlando Sentinel, http://www.orlandosentinel.com/brandpublishing/forstudentsnotprofit/os-how-to-improve-a-state-economy-20170217-story.html//GHS-AK)
For every dollar Wisconsin taxpayers invest in their technical college system, they get back
AND
. “We have been very fortunate and very pleased with their performance.”

Federal CTE funding critical to avoid impending budget crisis and stimulate economic growth

CCD 17, [Published by the American Association of Community Colleges, 6-23-2017, "Governors support CTE, job-training funding – Community College Daily," Community College Daily, http://www.ccdaily.com/2017/05/governors-support-cte-job-training-funding/]
The National Governors Association (NGA) doesn’t often wade into debates over federal appropriations
AND
to ensure students are prepared for a 21st century economy,” NGA said.

It goes nuclear and causes extinction

Street 16 [Tim, fellow of the Sustainable Security Programme at the Oxford Research Group, previously researcher with the British American Security Information Council, Ph.D. from Warwick University, 11/30/16, “President Trump: Successor to the Nuclear Throne,” http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefing_papers_and_reports/president_trump_successor_nuclear_throne]
Donald Trump’s arrival in the White House as US President has deeply unnerved people from
AND
to widespread anger, confusion and unrest, both at home and abroad.

The impact is diversionary war

Foster 12/19 [Dennis M., professor of international studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, “Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?,” http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home]
If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
AND
ramifications of an economic downturn with a President Trump in the White House.

States increasing funding on their own would run afoul of balanced-budget requirements and further downgrade their creditworthiness --- only increasing federal block grant spending can solve fiscal shortfalls

Gamage 10 [David Gamage, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), “Preventing State Budget Crises: Managing the Fiscal Volatility Problem,” California Law Review, 98 Calif. L. Rev. 749, June, 2010, lexis]
Politicians generally benefit both from cutting taxes and from increasing spending on popular programs.
AND
balanced budget constraint itself, thereby reducing its potential to provide countercyclical support.

Federal stimulus key to kickstart growth --- fiscal policy has more leverage than monetary policy

Bryan 16 [Bob, Business Insider, “Only one thing that can jumpstart the global economy right now — but no government is willing to do it,” Feb 22, 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2http:www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2]
Global economic growth is sluggish//, to say the least. The low-growth
AND
, Srivastava said such stimulus is being treated as "a last resort."

1ac discrimination adv


Current reform fails to address opportunity gaps for low-income, minority students – developing CTE creates pathways that break out of the vicious cycle of impoverishment

Shanker Institute, No date (The Albert Shanker Institute is a nonprofit foundation dealing with public education, the labor movement and the sociology of work. The foundation sponsors research, holds roundtable discussions, and publishes reports., “A Quality Education For All: A Career and Technical Education Policy Agenda”, http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/files/CTE-POLICY-AGENDA-3-10-9-131.pdf, nassal)
The emergence of the global knowledge economy has placed new and challenging demands on American
AND
one’s education and finding well-paying employment in a 21st century job.

Statistically, minority populations are more likely to drop out of high school than other students

Creary and Naison 16 (Sharnell Creary, Dr. Naison, may 9th, 2016, “A Case for Career and Technical Education (CTE) in Reducing High School Dropout Rates and Youth Unemployment Among Urban Youth”, https://www.fordham.edu/download/downloads/id/5794/sharnell_creary_-_a_case_for_career_and_technical_education.pdf, nassal)
High School Dropout Individual and Societal Costs
Knowing the individual and societal costs
AND
and 35% for Hispanics, Asians and whites respectively. [15]

This feeds an endless cycle that marginalizes underprivileged youth resulting in higher incarceration rates that further disadvantage families

Creary and Naison 16 (Sharnell Creary, Dr. Naison, may 9th, 2016, “A Case for Career and Technical Education (CTE) in Reducing High School Dropout Rates and Youth Unemployment Among Urban Youth”, https://www.fordham.edu/download/downloads/id/5794/sharnell_creary_-_a_case_for_career_and_technical_education.pdf, nassal)
Youth Unemployment and Long Term Effects Lack of early work experience can have long­
AND
disadvantages families and whole communities that are deserted and left in urban decay.

Education and income are correlated – increasing varied educational pathways to labor market success reduces inequality

Gitterman et. al 15 (Daniel P. Gitterman is associate professor of public policy and senior fellow at the Global Research Institute at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill., Jeremy G. Moulton is an assistant professor of public policy at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. , Dillan Bono-Lunn is a doctoral student in Public Policy and a Royster Fellow at the University of. North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Laura Chrisco is Higher Education Policy Coordinator at UT Austin., “Can “Some College” Help Reduce Future Earnings Inequality?”, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0161956X.2015.1087774, nassal)
CAN “SOME COLLEGE” REDUCE FUTURE EARNINGS INEQUALITY? This analysis focuses on the
AND
postsecondary path that will best improve his or her future labor market success.

Education is good – schools play a key role in combating ethnic and racial inequalities

Robbins 10 (Daniel Louis Robbins, “Where Law Ends and Reality Begins: Limits of Successful Litigation in Desegregating Schools in the United States, Czech Republic and Hungary”, accessed on Google Scholar, www.etd.ceu.hu/2010/robbins_daniel-louis.pdf, nassal)
This thesis starts with the presumption, which will be defended below, that education
AND
has important implications for the human rights situations of Roma in schools"4

The plan solves – it ensures that CTE programs are more accessible to low-income and minority students

Holzer 16 (Harry J. Holzer is a Visiting Fellow in Economic Studies at The Brookings Institution and a professor of public policy at Georgetown University., February 29th, 2016, “Reducing poverty the Democratic way”, https://www.brookings.edu/research/reducing-poverty-the-democratic-way/, nassal)
By virtually all accounts, poverty in America is too high, and the opportunities
AND
providing them with both postsecondary education and career options after high school.4

1ac cte plan/solvency


The plan galvanizes private sector support for secondary CTE education through social innovation financing and competitive grants

Hasak 16 [Jonathan Hasak is a Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a former Teach for America corps member who taught in the Oakland Unified School District, “A summer surprise: the case for CTE reform,” 7/1/16, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/286111-a-summer-surprise-the-case-for-cte-reform]
Social innovation financing – gov. pays for demonstrated success [performance based investments]
AND
remaining days in session to reauthorize the Perkins Career and Technical Education Act.

Linking high schools to CTE programs administered by the private sector ensures the development of a workforce that overcomes looming productivity and skills gaps

Jackson and Hasak 14 [John H. Jackson is the president and CEO of the Schott Foundation for Public Education, held leadership positions at the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and has served as an adjunct professor of Race, Gender, and Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute, and Jonathan Hasak is a recent graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, “Look Beyond The Label: Reframing, Reimagining, and Reinvesting in CTE,” American Educator, Fall 2014, https://www.aft.org/ae/fall2014/jackson_hasak]
2. Address the Student-Readiness and Teaching-Training Gaps
Despite being
AND
greater efficiency, increased student choice, and wider access to education.18

Social innovation financing reduces runaway spending and encourages competition

Costa 11 [Kristina Costa, Special Assistant at the Center for American Progress. 10-19-2011 "Financing Tools for Social Innovation," Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/2011/10/19/10435/innovation-for-the-public-good-financing-tools-for-social-innovation/] /adres
Last week we examined why strong leadership is essential to public-sector innovation.
AND
Next week we’ll consider what makes an agency’s culture most able to innovate.

Federal action is critical – states can’t borrow

Timothy J. Bartik, 9- Senior Economist @ Uphjonh Institute for Employment Research (Working Paper 09-15, “How Policymakers Should Deal with the Delayed Benefits of Early Childhood Programs”)
One obvious way to reduce short-run costs of early childhood programs is to
AND
of government financing. The political winds might not support such government borrowing.