Title 1- equity and solvency


Contention 1: Equity


The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education funding decisions entirely to the states. The result will be rapidly escalating inequality where more Title I funding goes to the wealthiest schools

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
On December 10, 2015, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act underwent drastic changes
AND
-income students require more resources than their peers—not less.28

ESSA weakened Title I’s comparability, maintenance of effort and supplement not supplant standards – that makes the vast majority of school financing exempt from equity requirements

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The randomized guarantee of output equality might be mitigated or cured if instead the ESSA’s
AND
block this eventuality through regulation but faced congressional rebuke for doing so.271

Title I funding formulas favor wealthier districts

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The ESSA, however, did almost nothing to ensure adequacy moving forward. First
AND
, with the wealthiest states receiving the largest per-pupil grants.290

Unequal funding denies millions access to an excellent education

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “Disrupting Education Federalism” WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW [VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
The United States continues to tolerate a longstanding educational opportunity gap. Today, it
AND
in low-income and high-income families also has widened. n7

The consequences are devastating and fuel school-to-prison pipelines

Meanes, 16 – Partner @Thompson Coburn, LLP; President @ National Bar Association 2014-15. J.D., University of Iowa; M.A., Clark Atlanta University; B.A., Monmouth College (Pamela J., “SCHOOL INEQUALITY: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS: Allen Chair Issue 2016: SCHOOL DISCIPLINE POLICIES: EQUITY IN AMERICAN EDUCATION: THE INTERSECTION OF RACE, CLASS, AND EDUCATION,” University of Richmond Law Review, 3/16, Lexis, 50 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1075)JLE
III. Inequitable School Funding
"We must recognize the full human equality
AND
adults who are an expense to society//, rather than becoming contributing taxpayers.

Reducing social inequality begins within k-12 schools---overwhelming evidence supports

Corydon Ireland 16, [Corydon Ireland Contributor- staff writer for the Harvard Gazette. Harvard Gazette staff writer Christina Pazzanese contributed to this report, which is t hird in a series on what Harvard scholars are doing to identify and understand inequality "The Costs of Inequality: Education Is the Key to It All", US News & World Report, 2-16-2016, https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-02-16/the-costs-of-inequality-education-is-the-key-to-it-all] Valiaveedu
If inequality starts anywhere, many scholars agree, it's with faulty education. Conversely
AND
educator Horace Mann's vision of public education as society's "balance-wheel."

Inequality kills tens of thousands each year

Bezruchka, ‘14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University (“Inequality Kills,” Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)
Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The
AND
simply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.

Deaths from structural violence are greater every year than from wars – changing laws that facilitate inequality is vital

Ansell, 17 - David A. Ansell, Senior Vice President, Associate Provost for Community Health Equity, and Michael E. Kelly Professor of Medicine at Rush University Medical Center (The Death Gap: How Inequality Kills, p. 7-10)
There are many different kinds of violence. Some are obvious: punches, attacks
AND
. And it is wrong because we have the means to fix it.

Structural violence is skyrocketing as inequality deepens – policy change focused on concentrated poverty is the key to reversing it

Ansell, 17 - David A. Ansell, Senior Vice President, Associate Provost for Community Health Equity, and Michael E. Kelly Professor of Medicine at Rush University Medical Center (The Death Gap: How Inequality Kills, p. 194-198)
The Chicago Transit Authority Blue Line train has a stop just in front of my
AND
to expose the conditions that curtail life and hasten death in our midst.

Reject big-stick impacts which push minority bodies to the back of the triage- give a new sense of urgency to these bodies as a radical critique of the waiting politics of the negative which serve to make suffering infinite by continually delaying the aff

Elizabeth Olson 2015 (Associate Professor of Geography and Global Studies at UNC-Chapel Hill, Geography and ethics I: Waiting and urgency, Progress in Human Geography, DOI: 10.1177/0309132515595758) 6/26/17
Though toileting might be thought of as a special case of bodily urgency, geographic
AND
as fertile ground for radical critique, a truly fierce urgency for now.


Plan


The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of elementary and secondary education in the United States through Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and create a replacement formula for distribution of funding that targets concentrated poverty, rewards progressive state funding, and rewards state fiscal effort.


1ac – solvency


Contention 2: Solvency


The plan ramps up Title I funding to 45 billion a year – anything short can’t account for the scale of concentrated poverty. Linking this to progressive state funding and fiscal effort provides 40% extra resources for low-income students.

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
Congress can then realign the Elementary and Secondary Education Act with its historic mission of
AND
Graduate School of Education. The data are on file with the author.

Funding is the major determinant of adequate outcomes – criticisms don’t account for the plan’s targeting

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)DH
Third, the ESSA’s willingness to largely ignore input equality and adequacy assumes that inputs
AND
the gap in outcomes// between low- and middle-income students.299

Critics of funding are based upon outdated evidence with flawed methodologies. Funding is the necessary enabler for all education reform and is supported by an overwhelming consensus of studies

Baker 17 (Bruce D. Baker, Professor in the Department of Educational Theory, Policy, and Administration in the Graduate School of Education at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, former Associate Professor of Teaching and Leadership at the University of Kansas, holds an Ed.D. in Organization and Leadership from the Teachers College of Columbia University, 2017 (“Does Money Matter in Education? Second Edition,” Albert Shanker Institute, http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/files/moneymatters_edition2.pdf//SR)
Main sources of doubt
The primary source of doubt to this day remains the
AND
that appropriate combinations of more funding with more accountability may be most promising.

Federal action is key – local resistance undermines state-level funding. Claims the states can act underestimate the scale of necessary change and ignore the regressivity of state taxation

Kleven 10—Professor of Law, Thurgood Marshall School of Law (Thomas, “Federalizing Public Education,” Villanova Law Review, 9/4/10, Lexis, 55 Vill. L. Rev. 369)JLE
Some aspects of today’s unequal education could be addressed on the state level. If
AND
as with the federal promotion of equal educational opportunity// in other respects today.

A federal statutory duty to increase Title I funding is the only sustainable way to guarantee funding over time. The federal signal is vital to overcoming shifting state and local political coalitions that will undermine funding over time

Hinson, 15 – lawyer; JD at the University of Michigan; former researcher for the Southern Poverty Law Center (Elizabeth, “Mainstreaming Equality in Federal Budgeting: Addressing Educational Inequities With Regard to the States” v20 issue 2, http://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=mjrl italics in original
The next challenge for the United States federal government is to commit funds where fiscal
AND
public schools in the United States may at last be countered and corrected.

Overwhelming historical evidence proves the federal government is the only entity capable of overcoming local resistance to equitable funding

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “Disrupting Education Federalism” WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW [VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
By enacting federal legislation and initiatives that embrace each of the elements discussed above,
AND
establish a much closer and more effective marriage between federal influence and responsibility.

States will say yes – federal spending has disproportionate influence

Robinson, 7 - Assistant Professor of Law, Emory School of Law; J.D., Harvard Law School (Kimberly, “The Case for a Collaborative Enforcement Model for a Federal Right to Education”, University of California, Davis Law Review [Vol. 40:1653, https://lawreview.law.ucdavis.edu/issues/40/5/articles/DavisVol40No5_Robinson.pdf
Others may argue that this Article’s approach would not achieve its goal because most states
AND
for school districts to develop creative approaches and new plans for their schools.
Deseg- Equity, Civic Education, and Solvency

===============================================================================================================

1AC - deseg


Advantage one is desegregation


U.S. schools still face rampant segregation --- reviving federal intervention is critical to reverse the trend

Scott, 16 --- Ranking Member on the Committee on Education and the Workforce in the US House of Representatives (5/19/16, Bobby, “America's schools are still segregated by race and class. That has to end,” https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/may/19/america-schools-segregation-race-class-education-policy-bobby-scott, accessed on 5/8/17, JMP)
This week marks the 62nd anniversary of the landmark supreme court ruling in Brown v
AND
the pre-Brown era of public education that remain to this day.

Segregation is decimating minority students’ opportunity to receive a quality education

Hertz, 14 --- masters student in public policy at the University of Chicago, has written about urban affairs for several publications, including Citylab (7/24/14, Daniel, “You’ve probably never heard of one of the worst Supreme Court decisions; But we're still dealing with its awful legacy,” https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/07/24/youve-probably-never-heard-of-one-of-the-worst-supreme-court-decisions/?utm_term=.8f851ada1429, accessed on 5/14/17, JMP)
Forty years ago this month, the Supreme Court released one of its most villainous
AND
: that it wasn’t a necessary task, morally. They were wrong.

Resolving educational segregation bridges racial disparities and challenge white supremacy --- spills-over to prisons, mental health facilities, housing, and police

Holley-Walker, 12 --- Associate Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law, J.D. from Harvard (Winter 2012, Danielle, Georgia State University Law Review, “A NEW ERA FOR DESEGREGATION,” 28 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 423, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
[*443] III. WHY WE NEED A NEW ERA OF DESEGREGATION
AND
discrimination and to refocus our education reform on equality as a core value.

Racism is perpetuated by myths and furthered by isolation.

Halstead 6/22
(John Halstead, 6-22-2017, "Our Fear Of Black Men Is Racist, And It Killed Philando Castile", http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/our-fear-of-black-men-is-racist-and-it-killed-philando_us_594aeb77e4b092ed90588b75, MW)
I was raised to be afraid of Black men. This was communicated in many
AND

that killed Philando Castile. And that means that we are responsible too.

Federal enforcement capacity ensures continued implementation

Black, 10 --- Associate Professor of Law and Director, Education Rights Center, Howard University School of Law (March 2010, Derek, William and Mary Law Review, “UNLOCKING THE POWER OF STATE CONSTITUTIONS WITH EQUAL PROTECTION: THE FIRST STEP TOWARD EDUCATION AS A FEDERALLY
For these same reasons, federal equal protection has the capacity to produce some results
AND
. This Article provides a viable strategy to make this federal enforcement possible.

Superior research and technical assistance to ensure implementation

Robinson, 15 --- Professor of Law, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly Jenkins Robinson, Washington University Law Review, “DISRUPTING EDUCATION FEDERALISM,” 92 Wash. U. L. Rev. 959, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
C. Focusing Rigorous Federal Research and Technical Assistance on the Most Effective Approaches for
AND
its understanding of these issues deepens through the implementation of the research agenda.

DOJ signal advances, monitors and enforces deseg cases

Holley-Walker, 12 --- Associate Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law, J.D. from Harvard (Winter 2012, Danielle, Georgia State University Law Review, “A NEW ERA FOR DESEGREGATION,” 28 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 423, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
The Role of the Federal Government The federal government will likely be the decisive factor
AND
but many districts do not actively seek to have the cases terminated. n84

Challenging institutional racism is a prior ethical question— it makes violence structurally inevitable and foundationally negates morality making defenses of utilitarianism incoherent

Memmi, 2k --- Professor Emeritus of Sociology @ U of Paris, Naiteire (Albert, Racism, Translated by Steve Martinot, p. 163-165)
The struggle against racism will be long, difficult, without intermission, without remission
AND
. True, it is a wager, but the stakes are irresistible.

1AC – civics


Advantage two is civil education


Democracy is at the brink --- Trump’s victory breeds authoritarianism – extinction is near – civic education solves

Kahlenberg and Janey 16 – Kahlenberg is a senior fellow at The Century Foundation with expertise in education, civil rights, and equal opportunity and Janey is a senior research scholar at Boston University’s School of Education (Richard and Clifford, 11/10/16, “Putting Democracy Back into Public Education”, https://tcf.org/content/report/putting-democracy-back-public-education/, MW)
Cost to Ignoring Democracy’s Role Today, however, we are seeing the costs of
AND
close friends of family voting for Donald Trump, and vice versa.53

Re-segregation built the foundations for Trumpism --- reforming education policies is essential to transform society and check racial scapegoating

Klein 16 - education reporter for HuffPost (Rebecca Klein, 11-15-2016, "What School Segregation Has To Do With The Rise Of Donald Trump", http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/donald-trump-segregation_us_582a36f7e4b060adb56ff7ff, MW)
Donald Trump’s personal life ― in all likelihood ― has not been directly impacted by
AND
, or any other methods, if they want to preserve their democracy.

Authoritarian control is the worst possible impact – it outweighs extinction

Farquhar et al. 17 — Project Manager at FHI responsible for external relations, lead author of several reports on the policy implications of emerging technologies (Sebastian Farquhar, “Existential Risk Diplomacy and Governance”, GLOBAL PRIORITIES PROJECT 2017, 1/23/17, https://www.fhi.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/Existential-Risks-2017-01-23.pdf) Valiaveedu
During the twentieth century, citizens of several nations lived for a time under extremely
AND
a particularly brutal global totalitarian state could arguably be worse than complete extinction.

1AC – solvency


The United States federal government, via Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment, should regulate K-12 schools that receive public funding by implementing a law that:


n Requires states to affirmatively further racially integrated education


n Explicitly includes a private right of action for parties to sue for equitable relief if states fail to take measures to affirmatively reduce racial isolation in schools


n Creates clear statutory language that confers rulemaking and regulatory authority to the Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights or an independent agency directed by a career employee, rather than a political appointee, to provide federal oversight and enforcement


n Authorizes and requires action by the Department of Justice for states that refuse compliance


n Funds deliberations that both document the current racial inequities in educational opportunity and provide useful data that may assist states and localities in fostering racially inclusive educational opportunities


n Funds research, development, and policy replication to preserve and strengthen federal, state, and local efforts to protect equal access to educational opportunities


n Includes the provision of transportation and construction funding to suburban schools, while also increasing school funding for inner-city schools


The plan is a comprehensive mechanism to address racial segregation in public education --- congressional action is critical

Epperson, 12 --- Associate Professor of Law, American University Washington College of Law (Winter 2012, Lia, Harvard Law & Policy Review, “SYMPOSIUM: EDUCATION: EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY: Legislating Inclusion,” 6 Harv. L. & Pol'y Rev. 91, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
III. CURRENT JUDICIAL CONSTRAINTS AND LEGISLATIVE IMPERATIVES In its examination of Section 5 power
AND
Amendment to consciously create a remedy for twenty-first century structural ills.

Federally enforced regulations are key to desegregation --- government agencies have superior expertise, information gathering, compliance monitoring, and planning

Landsberg, 16 --- Professor Emeritus, Pacific McGeorge School of Law (Brian K., Fall 2016, Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy, “LEE V. MACON COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION: THE POSSIBILITIES OF FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT OF EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY,” 12 Duke J. Const. Law & Pub. Pol'y 1, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP) *Note – HEW = United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare**
V. The Significance of Lee v. Macon County Board of Education
A
AND
and DOE to renew legal efforts to overcome racial isolation in the schools.



A confluence of factors makes great power war obsoletenuclear deterrence, interdependence, democracy and international norms – assign minimal risk to their impacts

Fettweis 17 (Christopher J, *Associate Professor of Political Science at Tulane University, Ph.D. from the University of Maryland, College Park, “Unipolarity, Hegemony, and the New Peace,” Security Studies 26:3, 423-451)//cmr
Competing Explanations The publication of Pinker’s The Better Angels of Our Nature in 2011 brought
AND
order it created, is the subject of the rest of this paper.

Rational actors take out their improbable scenarios
Quinlan 9 Sir Michael Quinlan is a leading expert on international security. During his thirty-eight-year career in the British civil service, he worked extensively in NATO and on NATO issues. In 1988 he was appointed as the Permanent Undersecretary of State in the Ministry of Defense, the ministry's highest-ranking nonpolitical civilian. From 1992 to 1999 he was director of the Ditchley Foundation, a privately funded institution focusing on international public policy issues. In fall of 2000 he was a public policy scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. Bibliographic information “Thinking About Nuclear Weapons: Principles, Problems, Prospects” 2009, pg. 63-69
Even if initial nuclear use did not quickly end the fighting, the supposition of
AND
response that culminated in a nuclear exchange which no one had truly intended.

Federal government can overcome any reason implementation fails --- new methods solve

Karam 15 --- a policy researcher at the nonprofit, nonpartisan RAND Corporation and a professor at the Pardee RAND Graduate School. (Rita Karam, “Implementing Education Reforms to Enhance School Performance”, RAND. http://www.rand.org/blog/2015/11/implementing-education-reforms-to-enhance-school-performance.html)//ET
School systems around the world have been increasingly under pressure to improve student achievement and
AND

they wish to live up to the promise of true, comprehensive change.

Negative:

Base DA (2NR)
Appointments DA (2NR)
Midterms DA (2NR)
Trump Good DA
Winners Win DA (2NR)
Trump Legitimacy DA
Federalism DA
Interest Rates DA
Competitiveness Bad DA
Buisiness Confidence DA (2NR)
Portability CP
State Budgets Advantage CP
Guaranteed Tax Base CP (2NR)
States CP (2NR)
Privatization CP (2NR)
Neolib K (2NR)
Foucault K
Decoloniality K
T - Classrooms
T - External Actors
T - Substantial


1AC - deseg


Advantage one is desegregation


U.S. schools still face rampant segregation --- reviving federal intervention is critical to reverse the trend

Scott, 16 --- Ranking Member on the Committee on Education and the Workforce in the US House of Representatives (5/19/16, Bobby, “America's schools are still segregated by race and class. That has to end,” https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/may/19/america-schools-segregation-race-class-education-policy-bobby-scott, accessed on 5/8/17, JMP)
This week marks the 62nd anniversary of the landmark supreme court ruling in Brown v
AND

the pre-Brown era of public education that remain to this day.

Segregation is decimating minority students’ opportunity to receive a quality education

Hertz, 14 --- masters student in public policy at the University of Chicago, has written about urban affairs for several publications, including Citylab (7/24/14, Daniel, “You’ve probably never heard of one of the worst Supreme Court decisions; But we're still dealing with its awful legacy,” https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/07/24/youve-probably-never-heard-of-one-of-the-worst-supreme-court-decisions/?utm_term=.8f851ada1429, accessed on 5/14/17, JMP)
Forty years ago this month, the Supreme Court released one of its most villainous
AND
: that it wasn’t a necessary task, morally. They were wrong.


Resolving educational segregation bridges racial disparities and challenge white supremacy --- spills-over to prisons, mental health facilities, housing, and police

Holley-Walker, 12 --- Associate Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law, J.D. from Harvard (Winter 2012, Danielle, Georgia State University Law Review, “A NEW ERA FOR DESEGREGATION,” 28 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 423, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
[*443] III. WHY WE NEED A NEW ERA OF DESEGREGATION
AND
discrimination and to refocus our education reform on equality as a core value.


Federal enforcement capacity ensures continued implementation

Black, 10 --- Associate Professor of Law and Director, Education Rights Center, Howard University School of Law (March 2010, Derek, William and Mary Law Review, “UNLOCKING THE POWER OF STATE CONSTITUTIONS WITH EQUAL PROTECTION: THE FIRST STEP TOWARD EDUCATION AS A FEDERALLY
For these same reasons, federal equal protection has the capacity to produce some results
AND
. This Article provides a viable strategy to make this federal enforcement possible.

Superior research and technical assistance to ensure implementation

Robinson, 15 --- Professor of Law, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly Jenkins Robinson, Washington University Law Review, “DISRUPTING EDUCATION FEDERALISM,” 92 Wash. U. L. Rev. 959, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
C. Focusing Rigorous Federal Research and Technical Assistance on the Most Effective Approaches for
AND

its understanding of these issues deepens through the implementation of the research agenda.

DOJ signal advances, monitors and enforces deseg cases

Holley-Walker, 12 --- Associate Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law, J.D. from Harvard (Winter 2012, Danielle, Georgia State University Law Review, “A NEW ERA FOR DESEGREGATION,” 28 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 423, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
The Role of the Federal Government The federal government will likely be the decisive factor
AND
but many districts do not actively seek to have the cases terminated. n84

Challenging institutional racism is a prior ethical question— it makes violence structurally inevitable and foundationally negates morality making defenses of utilitarianism incoherent

Memmi, 2k --- Professor Emeritus of Sociology @ U of Paris, Naiteire (Albert, Racism, Translated by Steve Martinot, p. 163-165)
The struggle against racism will be long, difficult, without intermission, without remission
AND
. True, it is a wager, but the stakes are irresistible
.

1AC – civics


Advantage two is civil education


Democracy is at the brink --- Trump’s victory breeds authoritarianism – extinction is near – civic education solves

Kahlenberg and Janey 16 – Kahlenberg is a senior fellow at The Century Foundation with expertise in education, civil rights, and equal opportunity and Janey is a senior research scholar at Boston University’s School of Education (Richard and Clifford, 11/10/16, “Putting Democracy Back into Public Education”, https://tcf.org/content/report/putting-democracy-back-public-education/, MW)
Cost to Ignoring Democracy’s Role Today, however, we are seeing the costs of
AND
close friends of family voting for Donald Trump, and vice versa.53

Re-segregation built the foundations for Trumpism --- reforming education policies is essential to transform society and check racial scapegoating

Klein 16 - education reporter for HuffPost (Rebecca Klein, 11-15-2016, "What School Segregation Has To Do With The Rise Of Donald Trump", http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/donald-trump-segregation_us_582a36f7e4b060adb56ff7ff, MW)
Donald Trump’s personal life ― in all likelihood ― has not been directly impacted by
AND
, or any other methods,
if they want to preserve their democracy.

Authoritarian control is the worst possible impact – it outweighs extinction

Farquhar et al. 17 — Project Manager at FHI responsible for external relations, lead author of several reports on the policy implications of emerging technologies (Sebastian Farquhar, “Existential Risk Diplomacy and Governance”, GLOBAL PRIORITIES PROJECT 2017, 1/23/17, https://www.fhi.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/Existential-Risks-2017-01-23.pdf) Valiaveedu
During the twentieth century, citizens of several nations lived for a time under extremely
AND
a particularly brutal global totalitarian state could arguably be worse than complete extinction.

1AC – solvency


The United States federal government, via Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment, should regulate K-12 schools that receive public funding by implementing a law that:


n Requires states to affirmatively further racially integrated education


n Explicitly includes a private right of action for parties to sue for equitable relief if states fail to take measures to affirmatively reduce racial isolation in schools


n Creates clear statutory language that confers rulemaking and regulatory authority to the Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights or an independent agency directed by a career employee, rather than a political appointee, to provide federal oversight and enforcement


n Authorizes and requires action by the Department of Justice for states that refuse compliance


n Funds deliberations that both document the current racial inequities in educational opportunity and provide useful data that may assist states and localities in fostering racially inclusive educational opportunities


n Funds research, development, and policy replication to preserve and strengthen federal, state, and local efforts to protect equal access to educational opportunities


n Includes the provision of transportation and construction funding to suburban schools, while also increasing school funding for inner-city schools


The plan is a comprehensive mechanism to address racial segregation in public education --- congressional action is critical

Epperson, 12 --- Associate Professor of Law, American University Washington College of Law (Winter 2012, Lia, Harvard Law & Policy Review, “SYMPOSIUM: EDUCATION: EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY: Legislating Inclusion,” 6 Harv. L. & Pol'y Rev. 91, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
III. CURRENT JUDICIAL CONSTRAINTS AND LEGISLATIVE IMPERATIVES In its examination of Section 5 power
AND

Amendment to consciously create a remedy for twenty-first century structural ills.

Federally enforced regulations are key to desegregation --- government agencies have superior expertise, information gathering, compliance monitoring, and planning

Landsberg, 16 --- Professor Emeritus, Pacific McGeorge School of Law (Brian K., Fall 2016, Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy, “LEE V. MACON COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION: THE POSSIBILITIES OF FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT OF EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY,” 12 Duke J. Const. Law & Pub. Pol'y 1, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP) *Note – HEW = United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare**
V. The Significance of Lee v. Macon County Board of Education
A
AND
and DOE to renew legal efforts to overcome racial isolation in the schools.

A confluence of factors makes great power war obsoletenuclear deterrence, interdependence, democracy and international norms – assign minimal risk to their impacts

Fettweis 17 (Christopher J, *Associate Professor of Political Science at Tulane University, Ph.D. from the University of Maryland, College Park, “Unipolarity, Hegemony, and the New Peace,” Security Studies 26:3, 423-451)//cmr
Competing Explanations The publication of Pinker’s The Better Angels of Our Nature in 2011 brought
AND
order it created, is the subject of the rest of this paper.


Rational actors take out their improbable scenarios
Quinlan 9 Sir Michael Quinlan is a leading expert on international security. During his thirty-eight-year career in the British civil service, he worked extensively in NATO and on NATO issues. In 1988 he was appointed as the Permanent Undersecretary of State in the Ministry of Defense, the ministry's highest-ranking nonpolitical civilian. From 1992 to 1999 he was director of the Ditchley Foundation, a privately funded institution focusing on international public policy issues. In fall of 2000 he was a public policy scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. Bibliographic information “Thinking About Nuclear Weapons: Principles, Problems, Prospects” 2009, pg. 63-69
Even if initial nuclear use did not quickly end the fighting, the supposition of
AND
response that culminated in a nuclear exchange which no one had truly intended.

Federal government can overcome any reason implementation fails --- new methods solve

Karam 15 --- a policy researcher at the nonprofit, nonpartisan RAND Corporation and a professor at the Pardee RAND Graduate School. (Rita Karam, “Implementing Education Reforms to Enhance School Performance”, RAND. http://www.rand.org/blog/2015/11/implementing-education-reforms-to-enhance-school-performance.html)//ET
School systems around the world have been increasingly under pressure to improve student achievement and
AND

they wish to live up to the promise of true, comprehensive change.