1AC 1-Title 1 (V Classic)



Equity



The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education funding decisions entirely to the states. The result will be rapidly escalating inequality where more Title I funding goes to the wealthiest schools

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
On December 10, 2015, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act underwent drastic changes
AND
-income students require more resources than their peers—not less.28


ESSA weakened Title I's comparability, maintenance of effort and supplement-not-supplant standards – that will magnify inequality

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The randomized guarantee of output equality might be mitigated or cured if instead the ESSA's
AND
block this eventuality through regulation but faced congressional rebuke for doing so.271


That means Title I funding is poorly targeted and benefits wealthier populations

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
The ESSA, however, did almost nothing to ensure adequacy moving forward. First
AND
, with the wealthiest states receiving the largest per-pupil grants.290


Unequal funding denies millions access to an excellent education

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
The United States continues to tolerate a longstanding educational opportunity gap. Today, it
AND
in low-income and high-income families also has widened. n7


Reducing social inequality begins within k-12 schools—-overwhelming evidence supports

Corydon Ireland 16, ~~[Corydon Ireland Contributor- staff writer for the Harvard Gazette. Harvard Gazette staff writer Christina Pazzanese contributed to this report, which is t hird in a series on what Harvard scholars are doing to identify and understand inequality "The Costs of Inequality: Education Is the Key to It All", US News & World Report, 2-16-2016, https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-02-16/the-costs-of-inequality-education-is-the-key-to-it-all~~] Valiaveedu
If inequality starts anywhere, many scholars agree, it's with faulty education. Conversely
AND
Mann's vision of public education as society's "balance-wheel." Civic engagement


Inequality creates widespread structural violence. Rigorous studies demonstrate it's responsible for one-third of all deaths every year

Bezruchka, '14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University ("Inequality Kills," Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)
Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The
AND
simply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.


Structural violence is the root cause of larger global violence- it drives wars and incites conflict

Markusen, 92- Was Professor of Sociology and Social Work at Southwest Minnesota State University in Marshall, Minnesota, USA, and Research Director of the Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies in Copenhagen (Eric, "GENOCIDE AND MODERN WAR"; Genocide In Our Time: An Annotated Bibliography With Analytical Introductions. Chapter 7. Published in 1992. http://surface.syr.edu/books/30/) NTT
STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE While the literature on collective violence focuses predominantly on genocide and warfare,
AND
violence tends to aggravate the economic and social conditions that cause structural violence.


Structural violence is skyrocketing as inequality deepens – policy change focused on concentrated poverty is the key to reversing it

Ansell, 17 - David A. Ansell, Senior Vice President, Associate Provost for Community Health Equity, and Michael E. Kelly Professor of Medicine at Rush University Medical Center (The Death Gap: How Inequality Kills, p. 194-198)
The Chicago Transit Authority Blue Line train has a stop just in front of my
AND
to expose the conditions that curtail life and hasten death in our midst.


You have an ethical obligation to prioritize structural violence impacts— societal structures are slowing killing millions each year

Høivik, 77- Department of Sociology, University of Oslo, and International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, (Tord "The Demography of Structural Violence"; Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1977), pp. 59-73. 1977. http://www.jstor.org/stable/423311) NTT
Structural violence is a key concept in peace theory. It is vague, no
AND
, we turn to demographic theory for an approach that will bring Ithem to


Plan



The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of elementary and secondary education in the United States through Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and create a replacement formula for distribution of funding that targets concentrated poverty, rewards progressive state funding, and rewards state fiscal effort.



Solvency



The plan ramps up Title I funding to 45 billion a year – anything short can't account for the scale of concentrated poverty. Linking this to progressive state funding and fiscal effort provides 40% extra resources for low-income students.

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
Congress can then realign the Elementary and Secondary Education Act with its historic mission of
AND
Graduate School of Education. The data are on file with the author.


Critics of funding are based upon outdated evidence with flawed methodologies. Funding is the necessary enabler for all education reform and is supported by an overwhelming consensus of studies

Baker 17 (Bruce D. Baker, Professor in the Department of Educational Theory, Policy, and Administration in the Graduate School of Education at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, former Associate Professor of Teaching and Leadership at the University of Kansas, holds an Ed.D. in Organization and Leadership from the Teachers College of Columbia University, 2017 ("Does Money Matter in Education? Second Edition," Albert Shanker Institute, http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/files/moneymatters_edition2.pdf//SR)
Main sources of doubt
The primary source of doubt to this day remains the
AND
that appropriate combinations of more funding with more accountability may be most promising.


Federal action is key – local resistance undermines state-level funding. Claims the states can act underestimate the scale of necessary change and ignore the regressivity of state taxation

Kleven 10—Professor of Law, Thurgood Marshall School of Law (Thomas, "Federalizing Public Education," Villanova Law Review, 9/4/10, Lexis, 55 Vill. L. Rev. 369)//JLE
Some aspects of today's unequal education could be addressed on the state level. If
AND
as with the federal promotion of equal educational opportunity in other respects today.


A federal statutory duty to increase Title I funding is the only sustainable way to guarantee funding over time. The federal signal is vital to overcoming shifting state and local political coalitions that will undermine funding over time

Hinson, 15 – lawyer; JD at the University of Michigan; former researcher for the Southern Poverty Law Center (Elizabeth, "Mainstreaming Equality in Federal Budgeting: Addressing Educational Inequities With Regard to the States" v20 issue 2, http://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=mjrl italics in original
The next challenge for the United States federal government is to commit funds where fiscal
AND
public schools in the United States may at last be countered and corrected.


Existing Title I funding is extremely inefficient – goes to services that don't facilitate improvement

Dynarski, 15 - Mark Dynarski, Nonresident Senior Fellow - Economic Studies, Center on Children and Families at Brookings AND Kirsten Kainz ("Why federal spending on disadvantaged students (Title I) doesn't work" 11/20, https://www.brookings.edu/research/why-federal-spending-on-disadvantaged-students-title-i-doesnt-work/
The table shows that 81 percent of principals reported spending Title I money on professional
AND
schools based on additional federal funding of a few hundred dollars per student.


Funding is the major determinant of adequate outcomes – criticisms don't account for the plan's targeting

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
AT: Funding not key
Third, the ESSA's willingness to largely ignore input
AND
the gap in outcomes between low- and middle-income students.299


A confluence of factors makes war obsolete – nuclear deterrence, interdependence, democracy and international norms

Fettweis 17 (Christopher J, *Associate Professor of Political Science at Tulane University, Ph.D. from the University of Maryland, College Park, "Unipolarity, Hegemony, and the New Peace," Security Studies 26:3, 423-451)//cmr
Competing Explanations The publication of Pinker's The Better Angels of Our Nature in 2011 brought
AND
order it created, is the subject of the rest of this paper.


Even in the age of Trump war is highly unlikely—-prefer most recent evidence

Steven Reinoehl, 4-10-2017, "COLUMN: Why World War III is not going to happen , http://www.idsnews.com/article/2017/04/ww3-not-going-to-happen
Since President Trump ordered 59 missiles to be launched at a Syrian airbase April 6
AND
in the past are unlikely to be dragged in willingly any time soon.


Probability outweighs magnitude—-large but low probability impacts insert us into counter-effective apocalyptic rhetoric

Boisvert 15- ~~[Will, journalist for The Breakthrough, writes on energy, environmental, and urban policy for The New York Observer, Dissent, and other publications, "Fear and Time: Risk Culture and the Broken Doomsday Clock" web 7.8.2017, https://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/journal/past-issues/issue-5/fear-and-time~~] Fall 2015//ad
But there are problems with apocalyptic dread as a framework for dealing with the issues
AND
something very different: to embrace the risks that are most worth taking.


Structural violence outweighs—it's a form of mass genocide

Ahmed, 07- is executive director of the Institute for Policy Research & Development in London and chief research officer at Unitas Communications Ltd. (Nafeez Mosaddeq, "STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE AS A FORM OF GENOCIDE THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER" Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar, no 5,October 2007. http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/15594587/structural_violence_genocide.pdf? AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1499304680&Signature=3GhYS6herS1Ug%2F2gqrLPAlWWEts%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DStructural_Violence_as_a_Form_of_Genocid.pdf) NTT
Genocide is conventionally associated with direct physical violence targeted against national, ethnic, or
AND
order against the South, which is relevant to assessing its genocidal import.










1AC 2-CTE

Advantage 1 is the Economy



Scenario 1 is Discrimination



Current reform fails to address opportunity gaps for low-income, minority students – developing CTE creates pathways that break out of the vicious cycle of impoverishment

Shanker Institute, No date (The Albert Shanker Institute is a nonprofit foundation dealing with public education, the labor movement and the sociology of work. The foundation sponsors research, holds roundtable discussions, and publishes reports., "A Quality Education For All: A Career and Technical Education Policy Agenda", http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/files/CTE-POLICY-AGENDA-3-10-9-131.pdf, nassal)
The emergence of the global knowledge economy has placed new and challenging demands on American
AND
one's education and finding well-paying employment in a 21st century job.


This feeds an endless cycle that marginalizes underprivileged youth resulting in higher incarceration rates and worsens the economy

Creary and Naison 16 (Sharnell Creary, Dr. Naison, may 9^^th^^, 2016, "A Case for Career and Technical Education (CTE) in Reducing High School Dropout Rates and Youth Unemployment Among Urban Youth", https://www.fordham.edu/download/downloads/id/5794/sharnell_creary_-_a_case_for_career_and_technical_education.pdf, nassal)
Youth Unemployment and Long Term Effects Lack of early work experience can have long­
AND
disadvantages families and whole communities that are deserted and left in urban decay.


The plan solves – it ensures that CTE programs are more accessible to low-income and minority students

Holzer 16 (Harry J. Holzer is a Visiting Fellow in Economic Studies at The Brookings Institution and a professor of public policy at Georgetown University., February 29^^th^^, 2016, "Reducing poverty the Democratic way", https://www.brookings.edu/research/reducing-poverty-the-democratic-way/, nassal)
By virtually all accounts, poverty in America is too high, and the opportunities
AND
providing them with both postsecondary education and career options after high school.4


Scenario 2 is State's Budgets


State budget shortfalls slow economic growth and ensure they lack sufficient revenue to fund pensions

Donlan 17 ~~[Thomas G. Donlan, editor at Barron's, "There's a Hole in State Pensions," Feb 11, 2017, http://www.barrons.com/articles/theres-a-hole-in-state-pensions-1486794298~~]
Turn away from the lurid deficit spectacles in Washington to examine the declining state of
AND
a firm arguing for tougher standards "may be disqualified from further consideration."


That collapses the US economy

Reeves 3/24 ~~[Jeff Reeves is a stock analyst and executive editor of InvestorPlace.com. His commentary has also appeared on CNBC, Fox Business, USA Today, and the Wall Street Journal network, "Your pension could be at the center of America's next financial crisis," March 24, 2017, http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/finance/325564-the-pension-crisis-will-be-americas-next-financial-crisis~~]
I'm not a fan of the "greed is good" mentality of Wall Street
AND
Security, even in an imperfect form, well beyond 2034?



Federal CTE funding critical to avoid impending budget crisis and stimulate economic growth

CCD 17, ~~[Published by the American Association of Community Colleges, 6-23-2017, "Governors support CTE, job-training funding – Community College Daily," Community College Daily, http://www.ccdaily.com/2017/05/governors-support-cte-job-training-funding/~~]
The National Governors Association (NGA) doesn't often wade into debates over federal appropriations
AND
to ensure students are prepared for a 21st century economy," NGA said.


States increasing funding on their own would run afoul of balanced-budget requirements and further downgrade their creditworthiness —- only increasing federal block grant spending can solve fiscal shortfalls

Gamage 10 ~~[David Gamage, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), "Preventing State Budget Crises: Managing the Fiscal Volatility Problem," California Law Review, 98 Calif. L. Rev. 749, June, 2010, lexis~~]
Politicians generally benefit both from cutting taxes and from increasing spending on popular programs.
AND
balanced budget constraint itself, thereby reducing its potential to provide countercyclical support.


Diversionary war true under trump

Foster 12/19 ~~[Dennis M., professor of international studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, "Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?," http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home~~]
If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
AND
ramifications of an economic downturn with a President Trump in the White House.


It goes nuclear and causes extinction

Street 16 ~~[Tim, fellow of the Sustainable Security Programme at the Oxford Research Group, previously researcher with the British American Security Information Council, Ph.D. from Warwick University, 11/30/16, "President Trump: Successor to the Nuclear Throne," http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefing_papers_and_reports/president_trump_successor_nuclear_throne~~]
Donald Trump's arrival in the White House as US President has deeply unnerved people from
AND
to widespread anger, confusion and unrest, both at home and abroad.




Advantage 2 is Worker Shortages


Scenario 1 is Cyber



The cyber workforce gap makes the US unprepared for a large scale cyber attack now

Kim 5/19/17 (Anne Kim - Senior Writer at the Washington Monthly. She is also a senior fellow at the Aspen Institute's initiative on financial security and a senior fellow at the Progressive Policy Institute. Before joining the Monthly, Anne served as senior policy strategist at the nonprofit CFED, as the economic program director at the think tank Third Way, and as legislative director and deputy chief of staff to Rep. Jim Cooper – "Trump Is Ignoring America's Looming Cybersecurity Threat" – 5/19/17 - http://washingtonmonthly.com/2017/05/19/trump-is-ignoring-americas-looming-cybersecurity-threats/)/TK
The "ransomware" attack that crippled computer systems around the globe last week
AND
won't get the money or the attention it deserves – until too late.


The plan solves - CTE is key to STEM education

Wolfe 6/26/17 (Alexis Wolfe - science policy analyst and writer for FYI and is currently working on expanding FYI's multimedia portfolio. Prior to joining AIP, she was an Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Fellow and NOAA Sea Grant Knauss Marine Policy Fellow at the U.S. Department of Energy, focusing on science communication – "Career and Technical Education Emerging as Vehicle for STEM in Trump Era" – 6/26/17 - https://www.aip.org/fyi/2017/career-and-technical-education-emerging-vehicle-stem-trump-era)/TK
Experiential, work-based career and technical education programs are receiving attention from policymakers
AND
community college students with internship positions at one of 15 national energy laboratories.


Improving technical and STEM education in primary and secondary schools is key to establish a sustainable pipeline of workers into the cyber security field – that resolves the workforce gap

Kay et al 12 (David J. Kay - Research Analyst in the Center for Technology and National Security Policy (CTNSP), Institute for National Strategic Studies, at the National Defense University; Terry J. Pudas - Senior Research Fellow in CTNSP; Brett Young - Research Assistant in CTNSP – "Preparing the Pipeline: The U.S. Cyber Workforce for the Future" – August 2012 - http://ctnsp.dodlive.mil/files/2013/07/DH-072.pdf)/TK
It is clear to cyber experts and observers inside and outside government that many of
AND
-, and long-term human capital strategies for government departments and agencies.


Attack on grid is inevitable – it escalates to war

Knake 4/3/17 (Robert K. Knake - Whitney Shepardson senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. His work focuses on Internet governance, public-private partnerships, and cyber conflict. Knake served from 2011 to 2015 as director for cybersecurity policy at the National Security Council – "A Cyberattack on the U.S. Power Grid" – 4/3/17 - https://www.cfr.org/report/cyberattack-us-power-grid)/TK
The U.S. power grid has long been considered a logical target for
AND
action, as opposed to a response in kind, would be likely.


Cyber-attacks on the grid wipe-out the US military—-causes nuclear war

Robert Tilford 12, Graduate US Army Airborne School, Ft. Benning, Georgia, "Cyber attackers could shut down the electric grid for the entire east coast" 2012, http://www.examiner.com/article/cyber-attackers-could-easily-shut-down-the-electric-grid-for-the-entire-east-coa
**we reject ableist and offensive language
To make matters worse a cyber attack
AND
include the use of "nuclear weapons", if authorized by the President.


Scenario 2 is Agriculture


The need for skilled agriculture workers will continue to grow – improving CTE is critical to ensure a sufficient amount of graduates

Willis 17 ~~[Victoria, masters in agricultural education from Clemson University, "Nurturing our Established Roots: The Smith-Hughes Act as a Model for Agricultural Education Career Preparation" The Agricultural Education Magazine Vol 89 Issue 4, January 2017, pg 27 //GK~~]
Considering retirement rates, the need to supply the STEM pipeline, and the worlds'
AND
take on the challenges of the future for the betterment of our society.


Severe food shortages are coming now – they will ensure multiple paths to extinction – and a lack of academic interest increases the odds

Heneghan 15 ~~[Carolyn, freelance writer with experience in food and agriculture systems around the world, "Where food crises and global conflict could collide" Fooddive 1/22/15, http://www.fooddive.com/news/where-food-crises-and-global-conflict-could-collide/350837 //GK~~]
World War III is unimaginable for many, but some experts believe that not only
AND
find ways to solve the problem before it becomes something they cannot control.


US agriculture ships internationally – that's key to global food security

Edmark 15 ~~[Dave, U of A System Division of Agriculture, "Food security vital for national interests, world markets," Cattle News Network 10/23/15, http://www.cattlenetwork.com/news/food- security-vital- national-interests- world-markets //GK~~]
Improving global food security should be a U.S. priority because it is
AND
companies spending $8 billion to build infrastructure and supply chains in Africa.


Food shortages trigger nuclear escalation

FDI 12 (Future Directions International, a Research institute providing strategic analysis of Australia's global interests; citing Lindsay Falvery, PhD in Agricultural Science and former Professor at the University of Melbourne's Institute of Land and Environment, "Food and Water Insecurity: International Conflict Triggers & Potential Conflict Points," http://www.futuredirections.org.au/workshop-papers/537-international-conflict-triggers-and-potential-conflict-points-resulting-from-food-and-water-insecurity.html)
There is a growing appreciation that the conflicts in the next century will most likely
AND
identify famine as a potential trigger for conflicts and possibly even nuclear war.


Plan



Thus the plan: The United States federal government should substantially increase career and technical education formula grants for public secondary education, including a Career and Technical Education Pathways Trust Fund supplemented by Social Innovation Financing.



Solvency



The plan galvanizes private sector support for secondary CTE education through social innovation financing and competitive grants

Hasak 16 ~~[Jonathan Hasak is a Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a former Teach for America corps member who taught in the Oakland Unified School District, "A summer surprise: the case for CTE reform," 7/1/16, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/286111-a-summer-surprise-the-case-for-cte-reform~~]
In less than 16 days, the United States Congress will adjourn for their summer
AND
remaining days in session to reauthorize the Perkins Career and Technical Education Act.


Linking high schools to CTE programs administered by the private sector ensures the development of a workforce that overcomes looming productivity and skills gaps

Jackson and Hasak 14 ~~[John H. Jackson is the president and CEO of the Schott Foundation for Public Education, held leadership positions at the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and has served as an adjunct professor of Race, Gender, and Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute, and Jonathan Hasak is a recent graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, "Look Beyond The Label: Reframing, Reimagining, and Reinvesting in CTE," American Educator, Fall 2014, https://www.aft.org/ae/fall2014/jackson_hasak~~]
2. Address the Student-Readiness and Teaching-Training Gaps Despite being held
AND
greater efficiency, increased student choice, and wider access to education.18


Social innovation financing reduces runaway spending and encourages competition

Costa 11 ~~[Kristina Costa, Special Assistant at the Center for American Progress. 10-19-2011 "Financing Tools for Social Innovation," Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/2011/10/19/10435/innovation-for-the-public-good-financing-tools-for-social-innovation/~~] /adres
Last week we examined why strong leadership is essential to public-sector innovation.
AND
Next week we'll consider what makes an agency's culture most able to innovate.