CTE Aff v1

1ac state budgets adv

State budget shortfalls slow economic growth and ensure they lack sufficient revenue to fund pensions

Donlan 17 [Thomas G. Donlan, editor at Barron’s, “There’s a Hole in State Pensions,” Feb 11, 2017, http://www.barrons.com/articles/theres-a-hole-in-state-pensions-1486794298]
Turn away from the lurid deficit spectacles in Washington to examine the declining state of
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a firm arguing for tougher standards “may be disqualified from further consideration.”

Left unchecked, state pensions will be the next subprime mortgage crisis --- investors are already downgrading state credit

Booth 17 [Danielle DiMartino Booth, President of MoneyStrong, former Federal Reserve insider, March 24, 2017, “Pension Crisis Too Big for Markets to Ignore,” Bloomberg, https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-03-24/pension-crisis-too-big-for-markets-to-ignore]

In late 2006, Aaron Krowne, a computer scientist and mathematician, started a
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that shield their portfolios? Or will it be none of the above?

That collapses the US economy

Reeves 3/24 [Jeff Reeves is a stock analyst and executive editor of InvestorPlace.com. His commentary has also appeared on CNBC, Fox Business, USA Today, and the Wall Street Journal network, “Your pension could be at the center of America's next financial crisis,” March 24, 2017, http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/finance/325564-the-pension-crisis-will-be-americas-next-financial-crisis]
I’m not a fan of the “greed is good” mentality of Wall Street
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need Social Security, even in an imperfect form, well beyond 2034?

The impact is diversionary war

Foster 12/19 [Dennis M., professor of international studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, “Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?,” http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home]

If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
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ramifications of an economic downturn with a President Trump in the White House.

It goes nuclear and causes extinction

Street 16 [Tim, fellow of the Sustainable Security Programme at the Oxford Research Group, previously researcher with the British American Security Information Council, Ph.D. from Warwick University, 11/30/16, “President Trump: Successor to the Nuclear Throne,” http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefing_papers_and_reports/president_trump_successor_nuclear_throne]

Donald Trump’s arrival in the White House as US President has deeply unnerved people from
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to widespread anger, confusion and unrest, both at home and abroad.

Federal CTE funding is critical to avoid impending budget crisis and stimulate economic growth

CCD 17, [Published by the American Association of Community Colleges, 6-23-2017, "Governors support CTE, job-training funding – Community College Daily," Community College Daily, http://www.ccdaily.com/2017/05/governors-support-cte-job-training-funding/]
The National Governors Association (NGA) doesn’t often wade into debates over federal appropriations
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to ensure students are prepared for a 21st century economy,” NGA said.

CTE stimulates economic growth through a staggering multiplier effect and rescues state budgets

Ogul 17 – writer for Orlando Sentinel (David, “How to improve a state economy through technical education”, 2/17/17, Orlando Sentinel, http://www.orlandosentinel.com/brandpublishing/forstudentsnotprofit/os-how-to-improve-a-state-economy-20170217-story.html//GHS-AK)
For every dollar Wisconsin taxpayers invest in their technical college system, they get back
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. “We have been very fortunate and very pleased with their performance.”

States increasing funding on their own would run afoul of balanced-budget requirements and further downgrade their creditworthiness --- only increasing federal block grant spending can solve fiscal shortfalls

Gamage 10 [David Gamage, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), “Preventing State Budget Crises: Managing the Fiscal Volatility Problem,” California Law Review, 98 Calif. L. Rev. 749, June, 2010, lexis]
Politicians generally benefit both from cutting taxes and from increasing spending on popular programs.
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balanced budget constraint itself, thereby reducing its potential to provide countercyclical support.

1ac cyber advantage

The cyber workforce gap makes the US unprepared for a large scale cyber attack now

Kim 5/19/17 (Anne Kim - Senior Writer at the Washington Monthly. She is also a senior fellow at the Aspen Institute’s initiative on financial security and a senior fellow at the Progressive Policy Institute. Before joining the Monthly, Anne served as senior policy strategist at the nonprofit CFED, as the economic program director at the think tank Third Way, and as legislative director and deputy chief of staff to Rep. Jim Cooper – “Trump Is Ignoring America’s Looming Cybersecurity Threat” – 5/19/17 - http://washingtonmonthly.com/2017/05/19/trump-is-ignoring-americas-looming-cybersecurity-threats/)/TK
The “ransomware” attack that crippled computer systems around the globe last week
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won’t get the money or the attention it deserves – until too late.

The risk of a damaging cyber attack on the grid is coming – that can cause a US military retaliation, including to North Korea

Knake 4/3/17 (Robert K. Knake - Whitney Shepardson senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. His work focuses on Internet governance, public-private partnerships, and cyber conflict. Knake served from 2011 to 2015 as director for cybersecurity policy at the National Security Council – “A Cyberattack on the U.S. Power Grid” – 4/3/17 - https://www.cfr.org/report/cyberattack-us-power-grid)/TK
The U.S. power grid has long been considered a logical target for
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action, as opposed to a response in kind, would be likely.

Cyber-attacks on the grid wipe-out the US military---causes nuclear war

Robert Tilford 12, Graduate US Army Airborne School, Ft. Benning, Georgia, “Cyber attackers could shut down the electric grid for the entire east coast” 2012, http://www.examiner.com/article/cyber-attackers-could-easily-shut-down-the-electric-grid-for-the-entire-east-coa
**we reject ableist and offensive language
To make matters worse a cyber attack that can take out a civilian power grid
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include the use of “nuclear weapons”, if authorized by the President.

Independently, cyber threats can lead to accidental nuclear conflict and escalation – they alone can destroy societies

Van der Meer 16 (Sico van der Meer - Research Fellow at the Clingendael Institute. His research is focussing on non-conventional weapons like Weapons of Mass Destruction and cyber weapons from a strategic policy perspective – “Cyber Warfare and Nuclear Weapons: Game-changing Consequences?” – 12/6/16 -https://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/SWP_Paper_Chapter_Sico_van_der_Meer.pdf)/TK
Most nuclear weapons systems were designed decades ago, when manipulations of computer
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cheaper cyber weapons with more or less the same deterrent effect.

North Korea war goes nuclear and causes World War 3

Tweedie 17 (Neil Tweedie – Feature writer for the Telegraph – “Inching towards nuclear war? It's terrifying. North Korea's use of missiles threatens a new global flashpoint which could suck in South Korea, China, Japan and the US” – 3/16/17 - http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4322096/North-Korea-s-use-missiles-threatens-global-flashpoint.html)/TK
At 8.30 in the morning, rush hour is in full swing in
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the Korean Peninsula was ‘inching to the brink of a nuclear war’.

The plan solves - CTE is key to STEM education

Wolfe 6/26/17 (Alexis Wolfe - science policy analyst and writer for FYI and is currently working on expanding FYI’s multimedia portfolio. Prior to joining AIP, she was an Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Fellow and NOAA Sea Grant Knauss Marine Policy Fellow at the U.S. Department of Energy, focusing on science communication – “Career and Technical Education Emerging as Vehicle for STEM in Trump Era” – 6/26/17 - https://www.aip.org/fyi/2017/career-and-technical-education-emerging-vehicle-stem-trump-era)/TK
Experiential, work-based career and technical education programs are receiving attention from policymakers
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community college students with internship positions at one of 15 national energy laboratories.

Improving technical and STEM education in primary and secondary schools is key to establish a sustainable pipeline of workers into the cyber security field – that resolves the workforce gap

Kay et al 12 (David J. Kay - Research Analystin the Center for Technology andNational Security Policy (CTNSP), Institutefor National Strategic Studies,at the National Defense University;Terry J. Pudas - Senior ResearchFellow in CTNSP; Brett Young -Research Assistant in CTNSP – “Preparing the Pipeline:The U.S. Cyber Workforcefor the Future” – August 2012 - http://ctnsp.dodlive.mil/files/2013/07/DH-072.pdf)/TK
It is clear to cyber experts and observers inside and outside government that many of
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-, and long-term human capital strategies for government departments and agencies.

1ac cte plan/solvency

The United States federal government should substantially increase career and technical education formula grants for public secondary education, including a Career and Technical Education Pathways Trust Fund supplemented by Social Innovation Financing.

The plan galvanizes private sector support for secondary CTE education through social innovation financing and competitive grants

Hasak 16 [Jonathan Hasak is a Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a former Teach for America corps member who taught in the Oakland Unified School District, “A summer surprise: the case for CTE reform,” 7/1/16, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/286111-a-summer-surprise-the-case-for-cte-reform]
In less than 16 days, the United States Congress will adjourn for their summer
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remaining days in session to reauthorize the Perkins Career and Technical Education Act.

Linking high schools to CTE programs administered by the private sector ensures the development of a workforce that overcomes looming productivity and skills gaps

Jackson and Hasak 14 [John H. Jackson is the president and CEO of the Schott Foundation for Public Education, held leadership positions at the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and has served as an adjunct professor of Race, Gender, and Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute, and Jonathan Hasak is a recent graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, “Look Beyond The Label: Reframing, Reimagining, and Reinvesting in CTE,” American Educator, Fall 2014, https://www.aft.org/ae/fall2014/jackson_hasak]
2. Address the Student-Readiness and Teaching-Training GapsDespite being
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greater efficiency, increased student choice, and wider access to education.18

Social innovation financing reduces runaway spending and encourages competition

Costa 11 [Kristina Costa, Special Assistant at the Center for American Progress. 10-19-2011 "Financing Tools for Social Innovation," Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/2011/10/19/10435/innovation-for-the-public-good-financing-tools-for-social-innovation/] /adres
Last week we examined why strong leadership is essential to public-sector innovation.
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Next week we’ll consider what makes an agency’s culture most able to innovate.