1ac_Desegregation



1ac – plan



Plan: The United States federal government, including the Department of Education and Department of Justice, should impose and enforce disparate impact regulations on primary and/or secondary educational institutions receiving federal financial assistance, including a presumption against a school system's choice to assign students in a way that would lead to racial isolation, where non-isolating steps are available.



1ac – desegregation



Contention one is desegregation



School segregation is still rampant —- tolerating this, whether in the name of "educational quality" or "school choice" just lets racism win —- the constitution demands that public institutions comply with the law

Black, 6/6/17 —- Professor of Law, University of South Carolina (Derek, "Education in America Has Deep Flaws—and That's Why Racial Segregation Is on the Rise,"
https://theconversation.com/why-schools-still-cant-put
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will our base fears and racial biases begin to fade into the background.


A retreat of DOJ enforcement has allowed a resurgence in segregation —- federal agencies have a comparative advantage in enforcing regulations and compelling local cooperation

HEW= Health, Edu, and Welfare sector
Landsberg, 16 —- Professor Emeritus, Pacific McGeorge School of Law (Brian K., Fall 2016, Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy, "LEE V. MACON COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION: THE POSSIBILITIES OF FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT OF EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY," 12 Duke J. Const. Law & Pub. Pol'y 1, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP) ***Note – HEW = United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare
"There is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, nor
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later their cases were sent to the judicial district where they were located.


Desegregation is the best way to narrow achievement gap —- just making separate schools better isn't sufficient

Theoharis 15 – PHD and a chair in the School of Education at Syracuse
(George, 10/23/15, "'Forced busing' didn't fail. Desegregation is the best way to improve our schools.", https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/10/23/forced-busing-didnt-fail-desegregation-is-the-best-way-to-improve-our-schools/?utm_term=.99e5c334fa60, MW)
Since the Reagan administration's "A Nation at Risk" report pronounced that schools across
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the back of the education bus, it will always be the back.


Closing the academic achievement gap directly challenges social inequality and boosts health outcomes

Lynch & Oakford, 14 —- *professor of economics in the Department of Economics at Washington, AND **Policy Analyst at the Center for American Progress (Robert & Patrick, "The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps; Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color," https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/race/reports/2014/11/10/100577/the-economic-benefits-of-closing-educational-achievement-gaps/, accessed on 7/1/16, funk+JMP)
Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are
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and ethnic achievement gaps could amply pay for themselves in the long run.


Inequality kills tens of thousands each year

Bezruchka, '14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University ("Inequality Kills," Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)
Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The
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simply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.


U.S. legal changes are modeled by other countries —- civil rights protections in education are critical to overall equality —- they help sustain social movements

Willie, 14 —- professor emeritus at the Harvard Ed School, served as a consultant, expert witness, and court-appointed master in major school desegregation cases in cities such as Boston, Hartford, Dallas, Denver, Houston, Kansas City, Little Rock, Milwaukee, San Jose, Seattle, and St. Louis (6/4/14, Charlies, "Brown at 60 and Milliken at 40," https://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/ed/14/06/brown-60-milliken-40, accessed on 5/14/17, JMP)
Michelle Obama has reminded us to remember this: "Movements for real and lasting
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that is similar in some ways to the Constitution of the United States.


Federally enforced regulations are key to desegregation —- government agencies have superior expertise, information gathering, compliance monitoring, and planning

Landsberg, 16 —- Professor Emeritus, Pacific McGeorge School of Law (Brian K., Fall 2016, Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy, "LEE V. MACON COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION: THE POSSIBILITIES OF FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT OF EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY," 12 Duke J. Const. Law & Pub. Pol'y 1, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP) ***Note – HEW = United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare
V. The Significance of Lee v. Macon County Board of Education A
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and DOE to renew legal efforts to overcome racial isolation in the schools.


DOJ is critical to advance, monitor and enforce desegregation cases, including those addressing imbalances within schools

Holley-Walker, 12 —- Associate Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law, J.D. from Harvard (Winter 2012, Danielle, Georgia State University Law Review, "A NEW ERA FOR DESEGREGATION," 28 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 423, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
A. The Role of the Federal Government The federal government will likely be the
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but many districts do not actively seek to have the cases terminated. n84


Government based education reforms can transform society —- defeatist attitudes ensure the world stays the same

Glaude 16—Professor of African American Studies and Religion at Princeton and a PhD in Religion from Princeton ~~[Eddie S., Jr., Democracy in Black: How Race Still Enslaves, p. 185-197~~]
But Goldwater failed to realize that governmental indifference can harden hearts, and government action
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disproportionately locking up black men and women constitutes an answer to social ills.


Enforcing desegregation in public education will serve as a bridge to link ongoing racial disparities with historic racial discrimination and challenge white supremacy —- advances equality in prisons, mental health facilities, housing authorities, and police departments

Holley-Walker, 12 —- Associate Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law, J.D. from Harvard (Winter 2012, Danielle, Georgia State University Law Review, "A NEW ERA FOR DESEGREGATION," 28 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 423, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
~~[*443~~] III. WHY WE NEED A NEW ERA OF DESEGREGATION The
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discrimination and to refocus our education reform on equality as a core value.


One-shot policies won't produce lasting change —- federal equal protection is superior —- has an inherently larger enforcement capacity to ensure continued implementation- it spills over to the states

Black, 10 —- Associate Professor of Law and Director, Education Rights Center, Howard University School of Law (March 2010, Derek, William and Mary Law Review, "UNLOCKING THE POWER OF STATE CONSTITUTIONS WITH EQUAL PROTECTION: THE FIRST STEP TOWARD EDUCATION AS A FEDERALLY PROTECTED RIGHT," 51 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1343, Lexis-Nexis Academic, JMP)
For these same reasons, federal equal protection has the capacity to produce some results
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. This Article provides a viable strategy to make this federal enforcement possible.


1ac – framing



Contention two is framing



Challenging institutional racism is a prior ethical question— it makes violence structurally inevitable and foundationally negates morality making defenses of utilitarianism incoherent

Memmi, 2k —- Professor Emeritus of Sociology @ U of Paris, Naiteire (Albert, Racism, Translated by Steve Martinot, p. 163-165)
The struggle against racism will be long, difficult, without intermission, without remission
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. True, it is a wager, but the stakes are irresistible.


Consequentialism is wrong- we are only responsible for our actions

Harris, 8 (Alex, J.D. Stanford University, Harvard University Bachelors (magna cum laude), Practicing Appellate and Constitutional Law at Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLP, former Adjunct Analyst at The Competitive Enterprise Institute, "Philosopher's Corner: The Principle of Intervening Action", https://cei.org/blog/philosophers-corner-principle-intervening-action, August 15, 2008, ak.) ***Note —- PIA = Principle of Intervening Action
Gewirth takes the position that we are solely responsible for the morality of our own
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never be violated for any reason, including preventing future rights-violations.


No great power war – deterrence, interdependence

John Aziz 14, former economics and business editor at TheWeek.com, Don't worry: World War III will almost certainly never happen, March 6, http://theweek.com/article/index/257517/dont-worry-world-war-iii-will-almost-certainly-never-happen
Next year will be the seventieth anniversary of the end of the last global conflict
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countries are less desperate to go to war to seize other people's stuff.


Their war impacts trade off focus with structural violence and causes our impacts

Jackson 12—Director of the National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, the University of Otago. Former. Professor of International Politics at Aberystwyth University (8/5/12, Richard, The Great Con of National Security, http://richardjacksonterrorismblog.wordpress.com/2012/08/05/the-great-con-of-national-security/)
It may have once been the case that being attacked by another country was a
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terrorism. Somehow, we need to challenge the politicians on this fact.


Structural violence outweighs – social bias underrepresents its exponential effects

Nixon 11 (Rob Nixon is the Rachel Carson Professor of English, University of Wisconsin-Madison, NY Times Contributor and former is an affiliate of the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies the Harvard University Press 2011 "Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor" Pg 2-3 http://www.elimeyerhoff.com/books/nixon-rob—slow-violence-and-the-environmentalism-of-the-poor.pdf)
Underlying his plan is an overlooked but crucial subsidiary benefit that he outlined: offloading
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are scientifically convoluted cataclysms in which casualties are postponed, often for generations.

Primary Aff- CTE

Contention 1: Economy


State budget shortfalls slow economic growth and ensure they lack sufficient revenue to fund pensions

Donlan 17 ~~[Thomas G. Donlan, editor at Barron's, "There's a Hole in State Pensions," Feb 11, 2017, http://www.barrons.com/articles/theres-a-hole-in-state-pensions-1486794298~~]
Turn away from the lurid deficit spectacles in Washington to examine the declining state of
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a firm arguing for tougher standards "may be disqualified from further consideration."

That collapses the US economy

Reeves 3/24 ~~[Jeff Reeves is a stock analyst and executive editor of InvestorPlace.com. His commentary has also appeared on CNBC, Fox Business, USA Today, and the Wall Street Journal network, "Your pension could be at the center of America's next financial crisis," March 24, 2017, http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/finance/325564-the-pension-crisis-will-be-americas-next-financial-crisis~~]
I'm not a fan of the "greed is good" mentality of Wall Street
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Security, even in an imperfect form, well beyond 2034?


Federal CTE funding critical to avoid impending budget crisis and stimulate economic growth

CCD 17, ~~[Published by the American Association of Community Colleges, 6-23-2017, "Governors support CTE, job-training funding – Community College Daily," Community College Daily, http://www.ccdaily.com/2017/05/governors-support-cte-job-training-funding/~~]
The National Governors Association (NGA) doesn't often wade into debates over federal appropriations
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to ensure students are prepared for a 21st century economy," NGA said.

States increasing funding on their own would run afoul of balanced-budget requirements and further downgrade their creditworthiness —- only increasing federal block grant spending can solve fiscal shortfalls

Gamage 10 ~~[David Gamage, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), "Preventing State Budget Crises: Managing the Fiscal Volatility Problem," California Law Review, 98 Calif. L. Rev. 749, June, 2010, lexis~~]
Politicians generally benefit both from cutting taxes and from increasing spending on popular programs.
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balanced budget constraint itself, thereby reducing its potential to provide countercyclical support.

1^^st^^ impact is economic collapse –


Diversionary war is true under trump

Foster 2016 ~~[Dennis M., professor of international studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, "Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?," http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home~~]
If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
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ramifications of an economic downturn with a President Trump in the White House.

It goes nuclear and causes extinction

Street 16 ~~[Tim, fellow of the Sustainable Security Programme at the Oxford Research Group, previously researcher with the British American Security Information Council, Ph.D. from Warwick University, 11/30/16, "President Trump: Successor to the Nuclear Throne," http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefing_papers_and_reports/president_trump_successor_nuclear_throne~~]
Donald Trump's arrival in the White House as US President has deeply unnerved people from
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to widespread anger, confusion and unrest, both at home and abroad.

2nd is heg –


Collapse of the economy kills economic leadership and heg- collapse of either causes extinction

Joseph Lieberman and Jon Kyl 2015
(Joseph Lieberman- senior counsel at Kasowitz Benson Torres and Friedman LLP. Former United States senator and attorney general of the State of Connecticut. Jon Kyl- sat on the powerful Senate Finance Committee, where he was the top Republican on the Subcommittee on Taxation and Internal Revenue Service Oversight, also served as the ranking Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism. "Why American Leadership Still Matters" https://www.aei.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Why-American-Leadership-Still-Matters_online.pdf) mba-alb
This report reflects the fundamental consensus of our project's members that American global leadership is
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US business. These issues all underscore the need for stronger US leadership.

Contention 2: Worker Shortages


Scenario 1 is cyber –


The cyber workforce gap makes the US unprepared for a large scale cyber attack now

Kim 5/19/17 (Anne Kim - Senior Writer at the Washington Monthly. She is also a senior fellow at the Aspen Institute's initiative on financial security and a senior fellow at the Progressive Policy Institute. Before joining the Monthly, Anne served as senior policy strategist at the nonprofit CFED, as the economic program director at the think tank Third Way, and as legislative director and deputy chief of staff to Rep. Jim Cooper – "Trump Is Ignoring America's Looming Cybersecurity Threat" – 5/19/17 - http://washingtonmonthly.com/2017/05/19/trump-is-ignoring-americas-looming-cybersecurity-threats/)/TK
The "ransomware" attack that crippled computer systems around the globe last week
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won't get the money or the attention it deserves – until too late.

The plan solves - CTE is key to STEM education

Wolfe 6/26/17 (Alexis Wolfe - science policy analyst and writer for FYI and is currently working on expanding FYI's multimedia portfolio. Prior to joining AIP, she was an Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Fellow and NOAA Sea Grant Knauss Marine Policy Fellow at the U.S. Department of Energy, focusing on science communication – "Career and Technical Education Emerging as Vehicle for STEM in Trump Era" – 6/26/17 - https://www.aip.org/fyi/2017/career-and-technical-education-emerging-vehicle-stem-trump-era)/TK
Experiential, work-based career and technical education programs are receiving attention from policymakers
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community college students with internship positions at one of 15 national energy laboratories.

Improving technical and STEM education in primary and secondary schools is key to establish a sustainable pipeline of workers into the cyber security field – that resolves the workforce gap

Kay et al 12 (David J. Kay - Research Analyst in the Center for Technology and National Security Policy (CTNSP), Institute for National Strategic Studies, at the National Defense University; Terry J. Pudas - Senior Research Fellow in CTNSP; Brett Young - Research Assistant in CTNSP – "Preparing the Pipeline: The U.S. Cyber Workforce for the Future" – August 2012 - http://ctnsp.dodlive.mil/files/2013/07/DH-072.pdf)/TK
It is clear to cyber experts and observers inside and outside government that many of
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-, and long-term human capital strategies for government departments and agencies.

Attack on grid is inevitable – it escalates to war

Knake 4/3/17 (Robert K. Knake - Whitney Shepardson senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. His work focuses on Internet governance, public-private partnerships, and cyber conflict. Knake served from 2011 to 2015 as director for cybersecurity policy at the National Security Council – "A Cyberattack on the U.S. Power Grid" – 4/3/17 - https://www.cfr.org/report/cyberattack-us-power-grid)/TK
The U.S. power grid has long been considered a logical target for
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action, as opposed to a response in kind, would be likely.

Cyber-attacks on the grid wipe-out the US military—-causes nuclear war

Robert Tilford 12, Graduate US Army Airborne School, Ft. Benning, Georgia, "Cyber attackers could shut down the electric grid for the entire east coast" 2012, http://www.examiner.com/article/cyber-attackers-could-easily-shut-down-the-electric-grid-for-the-entire-east-coa
**we reject ableist and offensive language
To make matters worse a cyber attack
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include the use of "nuclear weapons", if authorized by the President.

Independently, cyber threats can lead to accidental nuclear conflict and escalation – they alone can destroy societies

Van der Meer 16 (Sico van der Meer - Research Fellow at the Clingendael Institute. His research is focussing on non-conventional weapons like Weapons of Mass Destruction and cyber weapons from a strategic policy perspective – "Cyber Warfare and Nuclear Weapons: Game-changing Consequences?" – 12/6/16 -https://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/SWP_Paper_Chapter_Sico_van_der_Meer.pdf)/TK
Most nuclear weapons systems were designed decades ago, when manipulations of computer
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cheaper cyber weapons with more or less the same deterrent effect.

Thus the Plan: The United States federal government should substantially increase career and technical education formula grants for public secondary education, including a Career and Technical Education Pathways Trust Fund supplemented by Social Innovation Financing.


Contention 3: Solvency


The plan galvanizes private sector support for secondary CTE education through social innovation financing and competitive grants

Hasak 16 ~~[Jonathan Hasak is a Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a former Teach for America corps member who taught in the Oakland Unified School District, "A summer surprise: the case for CTE reform," 7/1/16, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/286111-a-summer-surprise-the-case-for-cte-reform~~]
In less than 16 days, the United States Congress will adjourn for their summer
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remaining days in session to reauthorize the Perkins Career and Technical Education Act.

Linking high schools to CTE programs administered by the private sector ensures the development of a workforce that overcomes looming productivity and skills gaps

Jackson and Hasak 14 ~~[John H. Jackson is the president and CEO of the Schott Foundation for Public Education, held leadership positions at the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and has served as an adjunct professor of Race, Gender, and Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute, and Jonathan Hasak is a recent graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, "Look Beyond The Label: Reframing, Reimagining, and Reinvesting in CTE," American Educator, Fall 2014, https://www.aft.org/ae/fall2014/jackson_hasak~~]
2. Address the Student-Readiness and Teaching-Training Gaps Despite being held
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greater efficiency, increased student choice, and wider access to education.18

Social innovation financing reduces runaway spending and encourages competition

Costa 11 ~~[Kristina Costa, Special Assistant at the Center for American Progress. 10-19-2011 "Financing Tools for Social Innovation," Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/2011/10/19/10435/innovation-for-the-public-good-financing-tools-for-social-innovation/~~] /adres
Last week we examined why strong leadership is essential to public-sector innovation.
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Next week we'll consider what makes an agency's culture most able to innovate.

Federal stimulus key to kickstart growth —- fiscal policy has more leverage than monetary policy

Bryan 16 ~~[Bob, Business Insider, "Only one thing that can jumpstart the global economy right now — but no government is willing to do it," Feb 22, 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2http://www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2~~]
Global economic growth is sluggish, to say the least.
The low-
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, Srivastava said such stimulus is being treated as "a last resort."