Contact information:

Sydney Young --- 1a/2n --- syd8796@gmail.com

Eva Farber --- 1n/2a --- evafarber22@gmail.com


AFFIRMATIVE:

Title I version 1 aff against classic labs**


1ac – v1


1ac – equity


Contention 1 is Equity:


The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education funding decisions entirely to the states. The result will be rapidly escalating inequality where more Title I funding goes to the wealthiest schools

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
On December 10, 2015, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act underwent drastic changes
AND
-income students require more resources than their peers—not less.28

ESSA weakened Title I’s comparability, maintenance of effort and supplement-not-supplant standards – that will magnify inequality

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The randomized guarantee of output equality might be mitigated or cured if instead the ESSA’s
AND
block this eventuality through regulation but faced congressional rebuke for doing so.271

That means Title I funding is poorly targeted and benefits wealthier populations

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
The ESSA, however, did almost nothing to ensure adequacy moving forward. First
AND
, with the wealthiest states receiving the largest per-pupil grants.290

Unequal funding denies millions access to an excellent education

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “Disrupting Education Federalism” WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW [VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
The United States continues to tolerate a longstanding educational opportunity gap. Today, it
AND
in low-income and high-income families also has widened. n7

Reducing social inequality begins within k-12 schools---overwhelming evidence supports

Corydon Ireland 16, [Corydon Ireland Contributor- staff writer for the Harvard Gazette. Harvard Gazette staff writer Christina Pazzanese contributed to this report, which is t hird in a series on what Harvard scholars are doing to identify and understand inequality "The Costs of Inequality: Education Is the Key to It All", US News & World Report, 2-16-2016, https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-02-16/the-costs-of-inequality-education-is-the-key-to-it-all] Valiaveedu
If inequality starts anywhere, many scholars agree, it's with faulty education. Conversely
AND
Mann's vision of public education as society's "balance-wheel." Civic engagement

Inequality creates widespread structural violence. Rigorous studies demonstrate it’s responsible for one-third of all deaths every year

Bezruchka, ‘14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University (“Inequality Kills,” Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)
Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The
AND
simply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.

Structural violence is skyrocketing as inequality deepens – policy change focused on concentrated poverty is the key to reversing it

Ansell, 17 - David A. Ansell, Senior Vice President, Associate Provost for Community Health Equity, and Michael E. Kelly Professor of Medicine at Rush University Medical Center (The Death Gap: How Inequality Kills, p. 194-198)
The Chicago Transit Authority Blue Line train has a stop just in front of my
AND
to expose the conditions that curtail life and hasten death in our midst.

1ac – civic engagement


Contention 2 is civic engagement:


Educational inequality is destroying civic engagement – it explains the popular appeal of Trump

David Runciman 16, [David Runciman- professor of politics at Cambridge University and the author of several books "How the education gap is tearing politics apart", Guardian, 10-5-2016, https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/oct/05/trump-brexit-education-gap-tearing-politics-apart] Valiaveedu
On 23 February, Donald Trump stood before a rally of cheering supporters to celebrate
AND
people vote is increasingly being shaped by how long they spent at school.

Disparities in school funding directly impact the civics curriculum and substantially reduce engagement

Kahne & Middaugh 08—Kahne: Senior Researcher, School of Education Civic Engagement Research Group, Ted and Jo Dutton Presidential Professor of Education Policy; Middaugh: Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Child and Adolescent Development in the Lurie College of Education @ San José State University (Joseph & Ellen, “Democracy for Some: The Civic Opportunity Gap in High School,” Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning & Engagement, 2/08, http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503646.pdf)//JLE
There are no simple answers to this complex problem. The elements of civic and
AND
we discuss findings from each of these studies and then discuss related implications.

Trump regime threatens the lives of millions and emboldens white supremacists – active political engagement is critical to resistance

Creamer, 16 --- partner in Democracy Partners and a Senior Strategist for Americans United for Change (11/9/16, Robert, “What Now For Progressives?” www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-creamer/what-now-for-progressives_b_12881474.html)
First, we can’t sugar coat the magnitude of the disaster. Trump’s election has
AND
going to be casualties they need to be inflicted in battles we initiate.

Public schools are critical to challenge the war on education --- they are the only thing that stand between Trump and democracy’s demise

Whitaker 17 — The University of North Georgia (Westry Whitaker, “The Dying of the Light: The Cause to Illuminate in this State of Fragile Democracy” in Deconstructing the Education-Industrial Complex in the Digital Age, January 2017, accessed 7/1/2017)DGV
Giroux (2015) refers to the fact that our democracy is in a “
AND
to brightening the darkness. The survival of our democracy depends on it.//

Plan


The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of elementary and secondary education in the United States through Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and create a replacement formula for distribution of funding that targets concentrated poverty, rewards progressive state funding, and rewards state fiscal effort.


1ac – Solvency


The final contention is solvency:


The plan ramps up Title I funding to 45 billion a year – anything short can’t account for the scale of concentrated poverty. Linking this to progressive state funding and fiscal effort provides 40% extra resources for low-income students.

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
Congress can then realign the Elementary and Secondary Education Act with its historic mission of
AND
Graduate School of Education. The data are on file with the author.

Critics of funding are based upon outdated evidence with flawed methodologies. Funding is the necessary enabler for all education reform and is supported by an overwhelming consensus of studies

Baker 17 (Bruce D. Baker, Professor in the Department of Educational Theory, Policy, and Administration in the Graduate School of Education at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, former Associate Professor of Teaching and Leadership at the University of Kansas, holds an Ed.D. in Organization and Leadership from the Teachers College of Columbia University, 2017 (“Does Money Matter in Education? Second Edition,” Albert Shanker Institute, http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/files/moneymatters_edition2.pdf//SR)
Main sources of doubt
The primary source of doubt to this day remains the
AND
that appropriate combinations of more funding with more accountability may be most promising.

Federal action is key – local resistance undermines state-level funding. Claims the states can act underestimate the scale of necessary change and ignore the regressivity of state taxation

Kleven 10—Professor of Law, Thurgood Marshall School of Law (Thomas, “Federalizing Public Education,” Villanova Law Review, 9/4/10, Lexis, 55 Vill. L. Rev. 369)JLE
Some aspects of today’s unequal education could be addressed on the state level. If
AND
as with the federal promotion of equal educational opportunity// in other respects today.

A federal statutory duty to increase Title I funding is the only sustainable way to guarantee funding over time. The federal signal is vital to overcoming shifting state and local political coalitions that will undermine funding over time

Hinson, 15 – lawyer; JD at the University of Michigan; former researcher for the Southern Poverty Law Center (Elizabeth, “Mainstreaming Equality in Federal Budgeting: Addressing Educational Inequities With Regard to the States” v20 issue 2, http://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=mjrl italics in original
The next challenge for the United States federal government is to commit funds where fiscal
AND
public schools in the United States may at last be countered and corrected.

Existing Title I funding is extremely inefficient – goes to services that don’t facilitate improvement

Dynarski, 15 - Mark Dynarski, Nonresident Senior Fellow - Economic Studies, Center on Children and Families at Brookings AND Kirsten Kainz (“Why federal spending on disadvantaged students (Title I) doesn’t work” 11/20, https://www.brookings.edu/research/why-federal-spending-on-disadvantaged-students-title-i-doesnt-work/
The table shows that 81 percent of principals reported spending Title I money on professional
AND
schools based on additional federal funding of a few hundred dollars per student.

Funding is the major determinant of adequate outcomes – criticisms don’t account for the plan’s targeting

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)DH
AT: Funding not key
Third, the ESSA’s willingness to largely ignore input
AND
the gap in outcomes// between low- and middle-income students.299



Title I version 2


1ac – v2


Equity


Contention 1: Equity


The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education funding decisions almost entirely to the states. The result will be rapidly escalating inequality where more Title I funding goes to the wealthiest schools

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
On December 10, 2015, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act underwent drastic changes
AND
-income students require more resources than their peers—not less.28

ESSA weakened Title I’s comparability, maintenance of effort and supplement not supplant standards – that makes the vast majority of school financing exempt from equity requirements

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The randomized guarantee of output equality might be mitigated or cured if instead the ESSA’s
AND
block this eventuality through regulation but faced congressional rebuke for doing so.271

Title I funding formulas favor wealthier districts

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The ESSA, however, did almost nothing to ensure adequacy moving forward. First
AND
, with the wealthiest states receiving the largest per-pupil grants.290

Unequal funding denies millions access to an excellent education

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “Disrupting Education Federalism” WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW [VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
The United States continues to tolerate a longstanding educational opportunity gap. Today, it
AND
in low-income and high-income families also has widened. n7

The consequences are devastating and fuel school-to-prison pipelines

Meanes, 16 – Partner @Thompson Coburn, LLP; President @ National Bar Association 2014-15. J.D., University of Iowa; M.A., Clark Atlanta University; B.A., Monmouth College (Pamela J., “SCHOOL INEQUALITY: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS: Allen Chair Issue 2016: SCHOOL DISCIPLINE POLICIES: EQUITY IN AMERICAN EDUCATION: THE INTERSECTION OF RACE, CLASS, AND EDUCATION,” University of Richmond Law Review, 3/16, Lexis, 50 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1075)JLE
III. Inequitable School Funding
"We must recognize the full human equality
AND
adults who are an expense to society//, rather than becoming contributing taxpayers.

Inequality kills tens of thousands each year

Bezruchka, ‘14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University (“Inequality Kills,” Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)
Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The
AND
simply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.

Reducing social inequality begins within k-12 schools---overwhelming evidence supports

Corydon Ireland 16, [Corydon Ireland Contributor- staff writer for the Harvard Gazette. Harvard Gazette staff writer Christina Pazzanese contributed to this report, which is t hird in a series on what Harvard scholars are doing to identify and understand inequality "The Costs of Inequality: Education Is the Key to It All", US News & World Report, 2-16-2016, https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-02-16/the-costs-of-inequality-education-is-the-key-to-it-all] Valiaveedu
If inequality starts anywhere, many scholars agree, it's with faulty education. Conversely
AND
Mann's vision of public education as society's "balance-wheel." Civic engagement

Competitiveness


Contention 2: Competitiveness


Inequality in educational opportunity is causing US growth to stagnate and will devastate competitiveness

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “Disrupting Education Federalism” WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW [VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
Primary state and local control over education essentially invite inequality in educational opportunity because of
AND
for the U.S. economy in the years to come.141

Growing US debt will collapse the dollar and the foundations of US power – reducing inequality in education is the vital internal link to maintaining US leadership

Haass 17 [Richard Haass is president of the Council on Foreign Relations He received the 2013 Tipperary International Peace Award for peace works in Northern Ireland. Dr. Haass was director of policy planning for the Department of State, U.S. coordinator for policy toward the future of Afghanistan and U.S. envoy to the Northern Ireland peace process, special assistant to President George H.W. Bush and senior director for Near East and South Asian affairs on the staff of the National Security Council, vice president and director of foreign policy studies at the Brookings Institution, 01-10-2017, "A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order," Part III, Section 12, Penguin Press]//Rank
All of which brings me to the debt problem. What makes this issue particularly
AND
the United States, would be a good investment in the country’s future.

Declining US economic leadership risks global nuclear conflict

Haass 13 – President of the Council on Foreign Relations, former director of policy planning for the Department of State, master’s and Ph.D. from Oxford Univeristy (Richard N, “The World Without America”, Project Syndicate, 4/30/13, https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/repairing-the-roots-of-american-power-by-richard-n--haass)//JSL
AT: Free-Market CP
But, like most temptations, the urge
AND
just for Americans, but for the vast majority of the planet’s inhabitants.

Reducing inequity in K-12 education unlocks 70 trillion in long-term growth and will eliminate the US debt crisis

Edley et. Cuéllar 13 [Christopher Edley, Jr. and Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar- part of the The Equity and Excellence Commission (the Commission) which is a federal advisory committee chartered by Congress, operating under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA); 5 U.S.C., App.2. , For Each and Every Child, February 2, 2013, https://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/eec/equity-excellence-commission-report.pdf] Valiaveedu
While some young Americans—most of them white and affluent— are getting a
AND
that should be our strategic advantage in the international economy and squander it.

Given that low-income students, English-language learners and students of color together form a majority of our young people and the fastest-growing population in the nation—and that America’s future economic and civic vitality depends on their success in an age of global competition—this practice is not only unjust but also unwise


Educational inequality is the vital internal link – no other action will have as large of an effect. Robust studies confirm the economic benefits of the plan

Lynch 15 [Robert G. Lynch, Ph.D., State University of New York at Stony Brook, Professor of Economics at Washington College, January 2015, "The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Improving U.S. Educational Outcomes," Washington Center for Equitable Growth, http://equitablegrowth.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/10153405/0115-ach-gap-report.pdf]//Rank
This study addresses a key challenge confronting the United States—how to promote both
AND
of the most advantaged children as well as temper reductions in income inequality.

Plan


The United States federal government should substantially increase its Title I funding for elementary and secondary education in the United States, and should create new formulas for distribution of Title I funding based upon reducing concentrated poverty and rewarding progressive state funding and fiscal effort.


Solvency


Contention 3 is solvency:


The plan substantially reduces inequality in school financing – both funding and regulations are key

Robinson, 16 - * Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “No QUICK Fix FOR EQUITY AND EXCELLENCE: THE VIRTUES OF INCREMENTAL SHIFTS IN EDUCATION FEDERALISM” 27 Stan. L. & Pol'y Rev. 201 2016, Hein Online)
Federal funding through ESEA could help states address a substantial component of state funding shortfalls
AND
role be enacted as standalone conditions for receipt of any federal education funds.

Strong federal support to reduce inequality in public education is vital to create a bulwark against the privatization of education and maintain a functioning democracy

Sundquist, 17 - Professor of Law and Director of Faculty Research and Scholarship, Albany Law School (Christian, “Positive Education Federalism: The Promise of Equality after the Every Student Succeeds Act” 68 Mercer L. Rev. 351, Winter, lexis)
IV. Positive Federalism and Public Education Policy
The divining of the appropriate federal
AND
again on the path towards achieving equality of educational outcome for all students.

The plan incrementally scales up Title I conditions and funding – anything short of this fails

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
-AT: States CP
Congress can then realign the Elementary and Secondary Education
AND
for states to comply with the equity provisions outlined in the following sections.

If Time


Federal action is more likely to overcome local resistance, which undermines state level reform

Kleven 10—Professor of Law, Thurgood Marshall School of Law (Thomas, “Federalizing Public Education,” Villanova Law Review, 9/4/10, Lexis, 55 Vill. L. Rev. 369)JLE
2. (2) Federal Takeover of the States’ Role
The federal takeover
AND
as with the federal promotion of equal educational opportunity// in other respects today.

NEGATIVE:

Previous 2NRs:

Counterplans:

- States cp
- portability cp
- vouchers cp
- with hold funding cp

Disads:

- Base da
- Interest rates da
- Trump bad da
- Federalism da

Case turns:

- Cap good
- Synoptic delusion
- Interest rates