CTE(Primary)



State Budgets



Scenario one is the pension crisis —-



State pension crisis is intensifying – local budgets can't fill the hole

Politico 17 (Politico Magazine, August 2017, "What's the Greatest Risk American Cities Face?," POLITICO Magazine, http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2017/06/30/biggest-challenge-american-cities-policy-experts-215308, Accessed: 7-14-2017 /Kent Denver-NK)
American cities will not be able to confront important challenges, including decaying infrastructure,
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left. When that happens, we will be way beyond easy solutions.


State pension crisis is happening and will collapse the economy

Garret 6/9 (Olivier Garret, founding Partner and CEO of Mauldin Economics and Garret/Galland Research, 6-9-2017, "The Disturbing Trend That Will End in a Full-Fledged Pension Crisis," Forbes, https://www.forbes.com/sites/oliviergarret/2017/06/09/the-disturbing-trend-that-will-end-in-a-full-fledged-pension-crisis/~~#2474218b6620, Accessed: 7-14-2017 /Kent Denver-NK)
Some experts think it will be the trigger for the next financial collapse. Others
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yields, corporate pensions are struggling to meet their ever-increasing obligations.


CTE stimulates economic growth through a staggering multiplier effect and rescues state budgets

Ogul 17 – writer for Orlando Sentinel (David, "How to improve a state economy through technical education", 2/17/17, Orlando Sentinel, http://www.orlandosentinel.com/brandpublishing/forstudentsnotprofit/os-how-to-improve-a-state-economy-20170217-story.html//GHS-AK)
For every dollar Wisconsin taxpayers invest in their technical college system, they get back
AND
. "We have been very fortunate and very pleased with their performance."


Federal CTE funding critical to avoid impending budget crisis and stimulate economic growth

CCD 17, ~~[Published by the American Association of Community Colleges, 6-23-2017, "Governors support CTE, job-training funding – Community College Daily," Community College Daily, http://www.ccdaily.com/2017/05/governors-support-cte-job-training-funding/~~]
The National Governors Association (NGA) doesn't often wade into debates over federal appropriations
AND
to ensure students are prepared for a 21st century economy," NGA said.


Education and pension spending directly tradeoff, but federal education stimulus solves

CPE 10 (10/7/10, The Center for Public Education (Center) is a national resource for accurate, timely, and credible information about public education and its importance to the well-being of our nation. The Center provides up-to-date research, data, and analysis on current education issues and explores ways to improve student achievement and engage public support for public schools. "Cutting to the bone: How the economic crisis affects schools" http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Main-Menu/Public-education/Cutting-to-the-bone-At-a-glance/Cutting-to-the-bone-How-the-economic-crisis-affects-schools.html//SG)
Reduced funding from the federal stimulus program. State Fiscal Stabilization Funds (SFSF)
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recover to their pre-recession levels, district budgets may not catch up


Economic decline leads to diversionary war

Foster 12/19 ~~[Dennis M., professor of international studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, "Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?," http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home~~]
If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
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ramifications of an economic downturn with a President Trump in the White House.


It goes nuclear and causes extinction

Street 16 ~~[Tim, fellow of the Sustainable Security Programme at the Oxford Research Group, previously researcher with the British American Security Information Council, Ph.D. from Warwick University, 11/30/16, "President Trump: Successor to the Nuclear Throne," http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefing_papers_and_reports/president_trump_successor_nuclear_throne~~]
Donald Trump's arrival in the White House as US President has deeply unnerved people from
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to widespread anger, confusion and unrest, both at home and abroad.


States increasing funding on their own would destory balanced-budget requirements and downgrade their creditworthiness —- only increasing federal spending solves

Gamage 10 ~~[David Gamage, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), "Preventing State Budget Crises: Managing the Fiscal Volatility Problem," California Law Review, 98 Calif. L. Rev. 749, June, 2010, lexis~~]
Politicians generally benefit both from cutting taxes and from increasing spending on popular programs.
AND
balanced budget constraint itself, thereby reducing its potential to provide countercyclical support.


Competitiveness



Skill gaps and a declining middle class threaten American competiveness – CTE programs are crucial to a productive workforce

Miner 16 (Andrew Miner is a former intern with the Education Policy team at the Center for American Progress., October 11^^th^^, 2016, "Rebuilding the High School to Middle Class Pipeline", https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/news/2016/10/11/145341/rebuilding-the-high-school-to-middle-class-pipeline/, nassal)
In December of 2014, The Washington Post reported on the decline of manufacturing in
AND
of them include mentoring, an open and inclusive program, and paid internships


Skills training collaboration between public education and the private sector produces a skilled workforce that revitalizes manufacturing and tech innovation

Atlantic Council 17 ~~[The Atlantic Council is a nonpartisan organization that promotes constructive US leadership and engagement in international affairs, Keeping America's Innovative Edge, April 2017, director of the Atlantic Council's Foresight, Strategy, and Risks Initiative in the Brent Scowcroft Center on International Security, http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/images/publications/Keeping_Americas_Innovative_Edge_web_0404.pdf~~]
HUMAN CAPITAL EXAMPLE Rethinking Skills and Worker Training Even the most enlightened immigration scheme for
AND
skilled-employment needs and then linking its educational system to that trajectory.


Slow growth now- strong CTE is key to American economy

Litow and Suh 15, Litow vice president, corporate citizenship and corporate affairs, and president, IBM international. (Grace Suh, Stanley, October 2015 "TRANSFORMING HIGH SCHOOL AND ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE OF AMERICA'S COMPETITIVENESS" https://www.ibm.com/blogs/citizen-ibm/wp-content/uploads/Transforming-High-School-and-Addressing-the-Challenge-of-Americas-Competitiveness.pdf)//eliben
Sadly, America's young people are woefully unprepared to meet the demands of an increasingly
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-class track rather than as an alternative pathway remains a real concern.


CTE spending is key to economic growth

Dougherty 6/4 (Shaun M., Assistant Professor of Education & Public Policy, University of Connecticut, "How Trump's harsh education cuts undermine his economic growth goals," Salon, http://www.salon.com/2017/06/04/how-trumps-harsh-education-cuts-undermine-his-economic-growth-goals_partner/)//dgd
The Trump administration has some ambitious goals that include trillions in tax cuts, a
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education development will suffer, as will the administration's rosy economic growth projections.


Crumbling infrastructure and education destroys the foundations for power projection —- accelerating the pace of growth is key

US key to global economy – solves democracy, WMD prolif, warming, trade, cyber, disease, and war
Richard N. Haass 13, President of the Council on Foreign Relations, 4/30/13, "The World Without America," http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/repairing-the-roots-of-american-power-by-richard-n—haass
Let me posit a radical idea: The most critical threat facing the United States
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just for Americans, but for the vast majority of the planet's inhabitants.


Competiveness deters conflict- collapse causes great power war- maintaining economic power is crucial to global order

Kagan 2-6-17 (Robert, senior fellow with the Project on International Order and Strategy in the Foreign Policy program at Brookings. Author of the world America Made "Backing Into World War III" http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/02/06/backing-into-world-war-iii-russia-china-trump-obama/) mba-alb
Think of two significant trend lines in the world today. One is the increasing
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and the Pacific — has also had to remain relatively healthy and confident.


Collapse of competitiveness inevitable absent increase in productivity

Stoller 11 ~~[Matt, The Nation, "How America Could Collapse," July 27, 2011, https://www.thenation.com/article/how-america-could-collapse/~~]
It was in the 1990s that American multinationals, spurred by government policy, began
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to a societal collapse, the better chance we have of avoiding collapse.


Plan/Solvency



The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of secondary career and technical education, including increasing formula grants distributed to states, establishing of a CTE Pathways Trust Fund, and expanding Social Innovation Financing.



The plan galvanizes private sector support for secondary CTE education through social innovation financing and competitive grants

Hasak 16 ~~[Jonathan Hasak is a Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a former Teach for America corps member who taught in the Oakland Unified School District, "A summer surprise: the case for CTE reform," 7/1/16, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/286111-a-summer-surprise-the-case-for-cte-reform~~]
In less than 16 days, the United States Congress will adjourn for their summer
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remaining days in session to reauthorize the Perkins Career and Technical Education Act.


Social innovation financing reduces runaway spending and encourages competition

Costa 11 ~~[Kristina Costa, Special Assistant at the Center for American Progress. 10-19-2011 "Financing Tools for Social Innovation," Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/2011/10/19/10435/innovation-for-the-public-good-financing-tools-for-social-innovation/~~] /adres
Last week we examined why strong leadership is essential to public-sector innovation.
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Next week we'll consider what makes an agency's culture most able to innovate.


No national teacher shortage

Walsh 16' - president of the National Council on Teacher Quality (Kate, "The national teacher shortage is a myth. Here's what's really happening", 1202/16, The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-national-teacher-shortage-is-a-myth-heres-whats-really-happening/2016/12/02/58fac7d0-b4e5-11e6-a677-b608fbb3aaf6_story.html?utm_term=.879293c84e71GHS-AK)
With almost no real data — because neither states nor the federal government collects the
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percent of districts' new hires were straight out of a teacher prep program.


Linking high schools to CTE programs administered by the private sector ensures the development of a workforce that overcomes looming productivity and skills gaps

Jackson and Hasak 14 ~~[John H. Jackson is the president and CEO of the Schott Foundation for Public Education, held leadership positions at the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and has served as an adjunct professor of Race, Gender, and Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute, and Jonathan Hasak is a recent graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, "Look Beyond The Label: Reframing, Reimagining, and Reinvesting in CTE," American Educator, Fall 2014, https://www.aft.org/ae/fall2014/jackson_hasak~~]
2. Address the Student-Readiness and Teaching-Training Gaps
Despite being
AND

greater efficiency, increased student choice, and wider access to education.18


1AC Title 1



Plan



The United States federal government should substantially increase its Title I funding for elementary and secondary education in the United States, and should create new formulas for distribution of Title I funding based upon reducing concentrated poverty and rewarding progressive state funding and fiscal effort.



Equity



The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education funding decisions entirely to the states. The result will be rapidly escalating inequality where more Title I funding goes to the wealthiest schools

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
On December 10, 2015, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act underwent drastic changes
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-income students require more resources than their peers—not less.28


ESSA weakened Title I's comparability, maintenance of effort and supplement-not-supplant standards – that will magnify inequality

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The randomized guarantee of output equality might be mitigated or cured if instead the ESSA's
AND
block this eventuality through regulation but faced congressional rebuke for doing so.271


That means Title I funding is poorly targeted and benefits wealthier populations

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
The ESSA, however, did almost nothing to ensure adequacy moving forward. First
AND
, with the wealthiest states receiving the largest per-pupil grants.290


Unequal funding denies millions access to an excellent education

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
The United States continues to tolerate a longstanding educational opportunity gap. Today, it
AND
in low-income and high-income families also has widened. n7


The consequences are devastating and fuel school-to-prison pipelines

Meanes, 16 – Partner @Thompson Coburn, LLP; President @ National Bar Association 2014-15. J.D., University of Iowa; M.A., Clark Atlanta University; B.A., Monmouth College (Pamela J., "SCHOOL INEQUALITY: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS: Allen Chair Issue 2016: SCHOOL DISCIPLINE POLICIES: EQUITY IN AMERICAN EDUCATION: THE INTERSECTION OF RACE, CLASS, AND EDUCATION," University of Richmond Law Review, 3/16, Lexis, 50 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1075)//JLE
III. Inequitable School Funding
"We must recognize the full human equality
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adults who are an expense to society, rather than becoming contributing taxpayers.


Reducing social inequality begins within k-12 schools—-overwhelming evidence supports

Corydon Ireland 16 – journalist; this is based on interviews with Harvard professor of economics Roland Fryer, Harvard Graduate School of Education Dean James E. Ryan, Ronald Ferguson, adjunct lecturer in public policy at Harvard Kennedy School and faculty director of Harvard's Achievement Gap Initiative, Robert Putnam, the Peter and Isabel Malkin Professor of Public Policy at Harvard Kennedy School, and Harvard economist Lawrence Katz (Corydon Ireland US News & World Report, 2-16-2016, https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-02-16/the-costs-of-inequality-education-is-the-key-to-it-all~~] Valiaveedu
If inequality starts anywhere, many scholars agree, it's with faulty education. Conversely
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educator Horace Mann's vision of public education as society's "balance-wheel."


Inequality creates widespread structural violence. Rigorous studies demonstrate it's responsible for one-third of all deaths every year

Bezruchka, '14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University ("Inequality Kills," Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)
Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The
AND
simply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.


Deaths from structural violence are greater every year than from wars – changing laws that facilitate inequality is vital

Ansell, 17 - David A. Ansell, Senior Vice President, Associate Provost for Community Health Equity, and Michael E. Kelly Professor of Medicine at Rush University Medical Center (The Death Gap: How Inequality Kills, p. 7-10)
There are many different kinds of violence. Some are obvious: punches, attacks
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. And it is wrong because we have the means to fix it.


Structural violence is skyrocketing as inequality deepens – policy change focused on concentrated poverty is the key to reversing it

Ansell, 17 - David A. Ansell, Senior Vice President, Associate Provost for Community Health Equity, and Michael E. Kelly Professor of Medicine at Rush University Medical Center (The Death Gap: How Inequality Kills, p. 194-198)
The Chicago Transit Authority Blue Line train has a stop just in front of my
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to expose the conditions that curtail life and hasten death in our midst.


Independently, socioeconomic inequality is the main driver of climate change – resolving educational inequities is critical to prevent ecological destruction – decades of studies prove

Holmberg 17 ~~[Susan Holmberg is a Fellow at the Roosevelt Institute, where she researchers and writes on inequality and corporate governance issues, particularly around CEO pay reform and climate change, 5-8-2017, "Boiling Points: The Inextricable Links Between Inequality and Climate Change," Roosevelt Institute, http://rooseveltinstitute.org/boiling-points/~~]//Rank
Nevertheless, there is ample research showing a clear and positive relationship between climate change
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. results in better environmental quality in both the short and long run.


It's reverse causal – solving for socio-economic inequality is necessary for comprehensive environmental reform

Islam 15 ~~[S. Nazrul Islam is a Senior Economic Affairs Officer at the Development Policy Analysis Division of UN DESA , August 2015, "Inequality and Environmental Sustainability," Department of Economic & Social Affairs, http://www.un.org/esa/desa/papers/2015/wp145_2015.pdf~~]//Rank
This paper synthesizes recent findings about the relationship between economic (and also gender)
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the goal to reduce inequality in the global development agenda is very appropriate.


Carbon pollution and rapid climate change are dangerous – destroys crops, extreme weather events

Nuccitelli 16 Dana Nuccitelli is an environmental scientist and risk assessor (The Guardian, "New study undercuts favorite climate myth 'more CO2 is good for plants'," Dana Nuccitelli 9/19/16, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2016/sep/19/new-study-undercuts-favorite-climate-myth-more-co2-is-good-for-plants) // SR
A new study by scientists at Stanford University, published in the Proceedings of the
AND
proper risk management is incredibly important. Failure is simply not an option.


1ac – solvency



The plan ramps up Title I funding to 45 billion a year – anything short can't account for the scale of concentrated poverty. Linking this to progressive state funding and fiscal effort provides 40% extra resources for low-income students.

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
Congress can then realign the Elementary and Secondary Education Act with its historic mission of
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Graduate School of Education. The data are on file with the author.


Funding is the major determinant of adequate outcomes – criticisms don't account for the plan's targeting

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
Third, the ESSA's willingness to largely ignore input equality and adequacy assumes that inputs
AND
the gap in outcomes between low- and middle-income students.299


Critics of funding are based upon outdated evidence with flawed methodologies. Funding is the necessary enabler for all education reform and is supported by an overwhelming consensus of studies

Baker 17 (Bruce D. Baker, Professor in the Department of Educational Theory, Policy, and Administration in the Graduate School of Education at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, former Associate Professor of Teaching and Leadership at the University of Kansas, holds an Ed.D. in Organization and Leadership from the Teachers College of Columbia University, 2017 ("Does Money Matter in Education? Second Edition," Albert Shanker Institute, http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/files/moneymatters_edition2.pdf//SR)
Main sources of doubt
The primary source of doubt to this day remains the
AND
that appropriate combinations of more funding with more accountability may be most promising.


Federal action is key – local resistance undermines state-level funding. Claims the states can act underestimate the scale of necessary change and ignore the regressivity of state taxation

Kleven 10—Professor of Law, Thurgood Marshall School of Law (Thomas, "Federalizing Public Education," Villanova Law Review, 9/4/10, Lexis, 55 Vill. L. Rev. 369)//JLE
Some aspects of today's unequal education could be addressed on the state level. If
AND
as with the federal promotion of equal educational opportunity in other respects today.


A federal statutory duty to increase Title I funding is the only sustainable way to guarantee funding over time. The federal signal is vital to overcoming shifting state and local political coalitions that will undermine funding over time

Hinson, 15 – lawyer; JD at the University of Michigan; former researcher for the Southern Poverty Law Center (Elizabeth, "Mainstreaming Equality in Federal Budgeting: Addressing Educational Inequities With Regard to the States" v20 issue 2, http://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=mjrl italics in original
The next challenge for the United States federal government is to commit funds where fiscal
AND
public schools in the United States may at last be countered and corrected.


Overwhelming historical evidence proves the federal government is the only entity capable of overcoming local resistance to equitable funding

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
By enacting federal legislation and initiatives that embrace each of the elements discussed above,
AND
establish a much closer and more effective marriage between federal influence and responsibility.


A confluence of factors makes great power war obsolete – nuclear deterrence, interdependence, democracy and international norms – assign minimal risk to aff/neg impacts

Fettweis 17 (Christopher J, *Associate Professor of Political Science at Tulane University, Ph.D. from the University of Maryland, College Park, "Unipolarity, Hegemony, and the New Peace," Security Studies 26:3, 423-451)//cmr
Competing Explanations The publication of Pinker's The Better Angels of Our Nature in 2011 brought
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order it created, is the subject of the rest of this paper.


Institutional checks apply to trump too

Gady 16 Franz-Stefan Gady is an Associate Editor with The Diplomat. He also is a Senior Fellow with the EastWest Institute where he edits the Policy Innovation Blog. Franz-Stefan has reported from a wide range of countries and conflict zones including Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan. ("Could Trump Actually Start a Nuclear War?," The Diplomat, 11-11-2016) http://thediplomat.com/2016/11/could-trump-actually-start-a-nuclear-war//ARK1
With Donald Trump ascending to the presidency in 2017, which will also make him
AND
legislation to reduce the size of the military or cut the defense budget.

Nuclear weapons nullify escalation risks – best data and historical record proves

Cohen 17 (Michael D, PhD from University of British Columbia, "How nuclear proliferation causes conflict: the case for optimistic pessimism," Nonproliferation Review, VOL. 23, NOS. 3)//cmr
But there is a systematic effect of experience with nuclear weapons on the conflict propensity
AND
interstate conflict and form the basis for better policies to reduce the dangers.

Scenario planning is pedagogically valuable —- imagining future worlds challenges bias, spurs creativity, answers value questions

By Daniel W. Rasmus 9/29/16 (Active National Educator's Workshop, The Front End of Innovation rewarded U.C. President's Undergraduate Fellowship, some degree in writing. "Scenario planning and the future of education" http://www.seriousinsights.net/media/Scenario%20planning%20and%20the%20future%20of%20education.pdf)//masw
Synopsis
In 2006, Microsoft developed a vision for the future of education that
AND
future of education 8 Polarity A Critical uncertainties Polarity B <table omitted>


Descriptive understandings through casual relationships of the world are an essential prerequisite to emancipatory critique and epistemic decolonization.

Jones 04 – (August 2004, Branwen Gruffydd, PhD in Development Studies from the University of Sussex, Senior Lecturer in International Political Economy at Goldsmiths University of London, "From Eurocentrism to Epistemological Internationalism: power, knowledge and objectivity in International Relations," Paper presented at Theorising Ontology, Annual Conference of the International Association for Critical Realism, University of Cambridge, http://www.csog.group.cam.ac.uk/iacr/papers/Jones.pdf)
The 'common-sense' view pervading recent discussions of epistemology, ontology and methodology
AND
, genocide and dispossession which have characterised European expansion over five hundred years.



State Budgets



Scenario one is the pension crisis —-



State pension crisis is intensifying – local budgets can't fill the hole

Politico 17 (Politico Magazine, August 2017, "What's the Greatest Risk American Cities Face?," POLITICO Magazine, http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2017/06/30/biggest-challenge-american-cities-policy-experts-215308, Accessed: 7-14-2017 /Kent Denver-NK)
American cities will not be able to confront important challenges, including decaying infrastructure,
AND
left. When that happens, we will be way beyond easy solutions.


State pension crisis is happening and will collapse the economy

Garret 6/9 (Olivier Garret, founding Partner and CEO of Mauldin Economics and Garret/Galland Research, 6-9-2017, "The Disturbing Trend That Will End in a Full-Fledged Pension Crisis," Forbes, https://www.forbes.com/sites/oliviergarret/2017/06/09/the-disturbing-trend-that-will-end-in-a-full-fledged-pension-crisis/~~#2474218b6620, Accessed: 7-14-2017 /Kent Denver-NK)
Some experts think it will be the trigger for the next financial collapse. Others
AND
yields, corporate pensions are struggling to meet their ever-increasing obligations.


CTE stimulates economic growth through a staggering multiplier effect and rescues state budgets

Ogul 17 – writer for Orlando Sentinel (David, "How to improve a state economy through technical education", 2/17/17, Orlando Sentinel, http://www.orlandosentinel.com/brandpublishing/forstudentsnotprofit/os-how-to-improve-a-state-economy-20170217-story.html//GHS-AK)
For every dollar Wisconsin taxpayers invest in their technical college system, they get back
AND
. "We have been very fortunate and very pleased with their performance."


Federal CTE funding critical to avoid impending budget crisis and stimulate economic growth

CCD 17, ~~[Published by the American Association of Community Colleges, 6-23-2017, "Governors support CTE, job-training funding – Community College Daily," Community College Daily, http://www.ccdaily.com/2017/05/governors-support-cte-job-training-funding/~~]
The National Governors Association (NGA) doesn't often wade into debates over federal appropriations
AND
to ensure students are prepared for a 21st century economy," NGA said.


Education and pension spending directly tradeoff, but federal education stimulus solves

CPE 10 (10/7/10, The Center for Public Education (Center) is a national resource for accurate, timely, and credible information about public education and its importance to the well-being of our nation. The Center provides up-to-date research, data, and analysis on current education issues and explores ways to improve student achievement and engage public support for public schools. "Cutting to the bone: How the economic crisis affects schools" http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Main-Menu/Public-education/Cutting-to-the-bone-At-a-glance/Cutting-to-the-bone-How-the-economic-crisis-affects-schools.html//SG)
Reduced funding from the federal stimulus program. State Fiscal Stabilization Funds (SFSF)
AND
recover to their pre-recession levels, district budgets may not catch up


Economic decline leads to diversionary war

Foster 12/19 ~~[Dennis M., professor of international studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, "Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?," http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home~~]
If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
AND
ramifications of an economic downturn with a President Trump in the White House.


It goes nuclear and causes extinction

Street 16 ~~[Tim, fellow of the Sustainable Security Programme at the Oxford Research Group, previously researcher with the British American Security Information Council, Ph.D. from Warwick University, 11/30/16, "President Trump: Successor to the Nuclear Throne," http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefing_papers_and_reports/president_trump_successor_nuclear_throne~~]
Donald Trump's arrival in the White House as US President has deeply unnerved people from
AND
to widespread anger, confusion and unrest, both at home and abroad.


States increasing funding on their own would destory balanced-budget requirements and downgrade their creditworthiness —- only increasing federal spending solves

Gamage 10 ~~[David Gamage, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), "Preventing State Budget Crises: Managing the Fiscal Volatility Problem," California Law Review, 98 Calif. L. Rev. 749, June, 2010, lexis~~]
Politicians generally benefit both from cutting taxes and from increasing spending on popular programs.
AND
balanced budget constraint itself, thereby reducing its potential to provide countercyclical support.


Competitiveness



Skill gaps and a declining middle class threaten American competiveness – CTE programs are crucial to a productive workforce

Miner 16 (Andrew Miner is a former intern with the Education Policy team at the Center for American Progress., October 11^^th^^, 2016, "Rebuilding the High School to Middle Class Pipeline", https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/news/2016/10/11/145341/rebuilding-the-high-school-to-middle-class-pipeline/, nassal)
In December of 2014, The Washington Post reported on the decline of manufacturing in
AND
of them include mentoring, an open and inclusive program, and paid internships


Skills training collaboration between public education and the private sector produces a skilled workforce that revitalizes manufacturing and tech innovation

Atlantic Council 17 ~~[The Atlantic Council is a nonpartisan organization that promotes constructive US leadership and engagement in international affairs, Keeping America's Innovative Edge, April 2017, director of the Atlantic Council's Foresight, Strategy, and Risks Initiative in the Brent Scowcroft Center on International Security, http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/images/publications/Keeping_Americas_Innovative_Edge_web_0404.pdf~~]
HUMAN CAPITAL EXAMPLE Rethinking Skills and Worker Training Even the most enlightened immigration scheme for
AND
skilled-employment needs and then linking its educational system to that trajectory.


Slow growth now- strong CTE is key to American economy

Litow and Suh 15, Litow vice president, corporate citizenship and corporate affairs, and president, IBM international. (Grace Suh, Stanley, October 2015 "TRANSFORMING HIGH SCHOOL AND ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE OF AMERICA'S COMPETITIVENESS" https://www.ibm.com/blogs/citizen-ibm/wp-content/uploads/Transforming-High-School-and-Addressing-the-Challenge-of-Americas-Competitiveness.pdf)//eliben
Sadly, America's young people are woefully unprepared to meet the demands of an increasingly
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-class track rather than as an alternative pathway remains a real concern.


CTE spending is key to economic growth

Dougherty 6/4 (Shaun M., Assistant Professor of Education & Public Policy, University of Connecticut, "How Trump's harsh education cuts undermine his economic growth goals," Salon, http://www.salon.com/2017/06/04/how-trumps-harsh-education-cuts-undermine-his-economic-growth-goals_partner/)//dgd
The Trump administration has some ambitious goals that include trillions in tax cuts, a
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education development will suffer, as will the administration's rosy economic growth projections.


Crumbling infrastructure and education destroys the foundations for power projection —- accelerating the pace of growth is key

US key to global economy – solves democracy, WMD prolif, warming, trade, cyber, disease, and war
Richard N. Haass 13, President of the Council on Foreign Relations, 4/30/13, "The World Without America," http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/repairing-the-roots-of-american-power-by-richard-n—haass
Let me posit a radical idea: The most critical threat facing the United States
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just for Americans, but for the vast majority of the planet's inhabitants.


Competiveness deters conflict- collapse causes great power war- maintaining economic power is crucial to global order

Kagan 2-6-17 (Robert, senior fellow with the Project on International Order and Strategy in the Foreign Policy program at Brookings. Author of the world America Made "Backing Into World War III" http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/02/06/backing-into-world-war-iii-russia-china-trump-obama/) mba-alb
Think of two significant trend lines in the world today. One is the increasing
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and the Pacific — has also had to remain relatively healthy and confident.


Collapse of competitiveness inevitable absent increase in productivity

Stoller 11 ~~[Matt, The Nation, "How America Could Collapse," July 27, 2011, https://www.thenation.com/article/how-america-could-collapse/~~]
It was in the 1990s that American multinationals, spurred by government policy, began
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to a societal collapse, the better chance we have of avoiding collapse.


Plan/Solvency



The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of secondary career and technical education, including increasing formula grants distributed to states, establishing of a CTE Pathways Trust Fund, and expanding Social Innovation Financing.



The plan galvanizes private sector support for secondary CTE education through social innovation financing and competitive grants

Hasak 16 ~~[Jonathan Hasak is a Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a former Teach for America corps member who taught in the Oakland Unified School District, "A summer surprise: the case for CTE reform," 7/1/16, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/286111-a-summer-surprise-the-case-for-cte-reform~~]
In less than 16 days, the United States Congress will adjourn for their summer
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remaining days in session to reauthorize the Perkins Career and Technical Education Act.


Social innovation financing reduces runaway spending and encourages competition

Costa 11 ~~[Kristina Costa, Special Assistant at the Center for American Progress. 10-19-2011 "Financing Tools for Social Innovation," Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/2011/10/19/10435/innovation-for-the-public-good-financing-tools-for-social-innovation/~~] /adres
Last week we examined why strong leadership is essential to public-sector innovation.
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Next week we'll consider what makes an agency's culture most able to innovate.


No national teacher shortage

Walsh 16' - president of the National Council on Teacher Quality (Kate, "The national teacher shortage is a myth. Here's what's really happening", 1202/16, The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-national-teacher-shortage-is-a-myth-heres-whats-really-happening/2016/12/02/58fac7d0-b4e5-11e6-a677-b608fbb3aaf6_story.html?utm_term=.879293c84e71GHS-AK)
With almost no real data — because neither states nor the federal government collects the
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percent of districts' new hires were straight out of a teacher prep program.


Linking high schools to CTE programs administered by the private sector ensures the development of a workforce that overcomes looming productivity and skills gaps

Jackson and Hasak 14 ~~[John H. Jackson is the president and CEO of the Schott Foundation for Public Education, held leadership positions at the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and has served as an adjunct professor of Race, Gender, and Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute, and Jonathan Hasak is a recent graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, "Look Beyond The Label: Reframing, Reimagining, and Reinvesting in CTE," American Educator, Fall 2014, https://www.aft.org/ae/fall2014/jackson_hasak~~]
2. Address the Student-Readiness and Teaching-Training Gaps
Despite being
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greater efficiency, increased student choice, and wider access to education.18