1AC-- Title 1 Version 1

1ac equity



Contention 1: Equity



The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education funding decisions almost entirely to the states. The result will be rapidly escalating inequality where more Title I funding goes to the wealthiest schools

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
On December 10, 2015, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act underwent drastic changes
AND
-income students require more resources than their peers—not less.28


ESSA weakened Title I's comparability, maintenance of effort and supplement not supplant standards – that makes the vast majority of school financing exempt from equity requirements

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The randomized guarantee of output equality might be mitigated or cured if instead the ESSA's
AND
block this eventuality through regulation but faced congressional rebuke for doing so.271


Title I funding formulas favor wealthier districts

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The ESSA, however, did almost nothing to ensure adequacy moving forward. First
AND
, with the wealthiest states receiving the largest per-pupil grants.290


Unequal funding denies millions access to an excellent education

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
The United States continues to tolerate a longstanding educational opportunity gap. Today, it
AND
in low-income and high-income families also has widened. n7


The consequences are devastating and fuel school-to-prison pipelines

Meanes, 16 – Partner @Thompson Coburn, LLP; President @ National Bar Association 2014-15. J.D., University of Iowa; M.A., Clark Atlanta University; B.A., Monmouth College (Pamela J., "SCHOOL INEQUALITY: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS: Allen Chair Issue 2016: SCHOOL DISCIPLINE POLICIES: EQUITY IN AMERICAN EDUCATION: THE INTERSECTION OF RACE, CLASS, AND EDUCATION," University of Richmond Law Review, 3/16, Lexis, 50 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1075)//JLE
III. Inequitable School Funding
"We must recognize the full human equality
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adults who are an expense to society, rather than becoming contributing taxpayers.


Inequality kills tens of thousands each year

Bezruchka, '14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University ("Inequality Kills," Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)
Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The
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simply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.


Reducing social inequality begins within k-12 schools—-overwhelming evidence supports

Corydon Ireland 16, ~~[Corydon Ireland Contributor- staff writer for the Harvard Gazette. Harvard Gazette staff writer Christina Pazzanese contributed to this report, which is t hird in a series on what Harvard scholars are doing to identify and understand inequality "The Costs of Inequality: Education Is the Key to It All", US News & World Report, 2-16-2016, https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-02-16/the-costs-of-inequality-education-is-the-key-to-it-all~~] Valiaveedu
If inequality starts anywhere, many scholars agree, it's with faulty education. Conversely
AND
educator Horace Mann's vision of public education as society's "balance-wheel."


1ac competitiveness



Contention 2: Competitiveness



Inequality in educational opportunity is causing US growth to stagnate and will devastate competitiveness

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
Primary state and local control over education essentially invite inequality in educational opportunity because of
AND
for the U.S. economy in the years to come.141


Growing US debt will collapse the dollar and the foundations of US power – reducing inequality in education is the vital internal link to maintaining US leadership

Haass 17 ~~[Richard Haass is president of the Council on Foreign Relations He received the 2013 Tipperary International Peace Award for peace works in Northern Ireland. Dr. Haass was director of policy planning for the Department of State, U.S. coordinator for policy toward the future of Afghanistan and U.S. envoy to the Northern Ireland peace process, special assistant to President George H.W. Bush and senior director for Near East and South Asian affairs on the staff of the National Security Council, vice president and director of foreign policy studies at the Brookings Institution, 01-10-2017, "A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order," Part III, Section 12, Penguin Press~~]//Rank
All of which brings me to the debt problem. What makes this issue particularly
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the United States, would be a good investment in the country's future.


Declining US economic leadership risks global nuclear conflict

Haass 13 – President of the Council on Foreign Relations, former director of policy planning for the Department of State, master's and Ph.D. from Oxford Univeristy (Richard N, "The World Without America", Project Syndicate, 4/30/13, https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/repairing-the-roots-of-american-power-by-richard-n—haass)//JSL
But, like most temptations, the urge to gloat at America's imperfections and struggles
AND
just for Americans, but for the vast majority of the planet's inhabitants.


Reducing inequity in K-12 education unlocks 70 trillion in long-term growth and will eliminate the US debt crisis

Edley et. Cuéllar 13 ~~[Christopher Edley, Jr. and Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar- part of the The Equity and Excellence Commission (the Commission) which is a federal advisory committee chartered by Congress, operating under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA); 5 U.S.C., App.2. , For Each and Every Child, February 2, 2013, https://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/eec/equity-excellence-commission-report.pdf~~] Valiaveedu
While some young Americans—most of them white and affluent— are getting a
AND
of global competition—this practice is not only unjust but also unwise




Educational inequality is the vital internal link – no other action will have as large of an effect. Robust studies confirm the economic benefits of the plan

Lynch 15 ~~[Robert G. Lynch, Ph.D., State University of New York at Stony Brook, Professor of Economics at Washington College, January 2015, "The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Improving U.S. Educational Outcomes," Washington Center for Equitable Growth, http://equitablegrowth.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/10153405/0115-ach-gap-report.pdf~~]//Rank
This study addresses a key challenge confronting the United States—how to promote both
AND
of the most advantaged children as well as temper reductions in income inequality.


1ac – plan

The United States federal government should substantially increase its Title I funding for elementary and secondary education in the United States, and should create new formulas for distribution of Title I funding based upon reducing concentrated poverty and rewarding progressive state funding and fiscal effort.


1ac – solvency



Contention 3: Solvency



The plan substantially reduces inequality in school financing – both funding and regulations are key

Robinson, 16 - * Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "No QUICK Fix FOR EQUITY AND EXCELLENCE: THE VIRTUES OF INCREMENTAL SHIFTS IN EDUCATION FEDERALISM" 27 Stan. L. & Pol'y Rev. 201 2016, Hein Online)
Federal funding through ESEA could help states address a substantial component of state funding shortfalls
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role be enacted as standalone conditions for receipt of any federal education funds.


Only federal intervention can address the scale of inequality – states lack capacity and resources, and their funding mechanisms are regressive and magnify inequality

Robinson, 12 - Professor of Law, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "The Past, Present, and Future of Equal Educational Opportunity: A Call for a New Theory of Education Federalism" The University of Chicago Law Review ~~[79:429, https://lawreview.uchicago.edu/sites/lawreview.uchicago.edu/files/14%20Robinson%20BKR.pdf)//DH
Before examining why the federal government should lead the nation's efforts to achieve equal educational
AND
of government that is the most efficient and effective at accomplishing it.91


Federal leadership is key – overcomes local resistance to reform more effectively than the states

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
By enacting federal legislation and initiatives that embrace each of the elements discussed above,
AND
establish a much closer and more effective marriage between federal influence and responsibility.


The plan incrementally scales up Title I conditions and funding – anything short of this fails

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
Congress can then realign the Elementary and Secondary Education Act with its historic mission of
AND
for states to comply with the equity provisions outlined in the following sections.


Federal action is key – bully pulpit, research, dissemination, leadership

Robinson, 16 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "FISHER'S CAUTIONARY TALE AND THE URGENT NEED FOR EQUAL ACCESS TO AN EXCELLENT EDUCATION" 130 Harv. L. Rev. 185, November, lexis)
The federal government must establish equal access to an excellent education as an urgent national
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that legislative reform consistent with my proposal is unlikely in the near term.




1AC-- TITLE I VERSION 2




1ac – equity



Contention 1: Equity



The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education funding decisions almost entirely to the states. The result will be rapidly escalating inequality where more Title I funding goes to the wealthiest schools

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
On December 10, 2015, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act underwent drastic changes
AND
-income students require more resources than their peers—not less.28


ESSA weakened Title I's comparability, maintenance of effort and supplement-not-supplant standards – that will magnify inequality

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The randomized guarantee of output equality might be mitigated or cured if instead the ESSA's
AND
block this eventuality through regulation but faced congressional rebuke for doing so.271


That means Title I funding is poorly targeted and benefits wealthier populations

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
The ESSA, however, did almost nothing to ensure adequacy moving forward. First
AND
, with the wealthiest states receiving the largest per-pupil grants.290


Unequal funding denies millions access to an excellent education

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
The United States continues to tolerate a longstanding educational opportunity gap. Today, it
AND
in low-income and high-income families also has widened. n7


Socioeconomic inequality is the main driver of climate change – resolving educational inequities is critical to prevent ecological destruction – decades of studies prove

Holmberg 17 ~~[Susan Holmberg is a Fellow at the Roosevelt Institute, where she researchers and writes on inequality and corporate governance issues, particularly around CEO pay reform and climate change, 5-8-2017, "Boiling Points: The Inextricable Links Between Inequality and Climate Change," Roosevelt Institute, http://rooseveltinstitute.org/boiling-points/~~]//Rank
Nevertheless, there is ample research showing a clear and positive relationship between climate change
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. results in better environmental quality in both the short and long run.


Warming risks extinction

Torres 2016 -Director of the X-Risks Institute

Phil and Peter Boghossian ~~[prof of philosophy @ Portland State~~], "The Looming Extinction of Humankind, Explained," Aug 18, motherboard.vice.com/en_au/read/armageddon-comma-explained
*Rees – Sir Martin Rees, co-founder of the Centre for the
AND
, the democratization of technology, and the growth of religious extremism worldwide.


Reducing social inequality begins within k-12 schools—-overwhelming evidence supports

Corydon Ireland 16 – journalist; this is based on interviews with Harvard professor of economics Roland Fryer, Harvard Graduate School of Education Dean James E. Ryan, Ronald Ferguson, adjunct lecturer in public policy at Harvard Kennedy School and faculty director of Harvard's Achievement Gap Initiative, Robert Putnam, the Peter and Isabel Malkin Professor of Public Policy at Harvard Kennedy School, and Harvard economist Lawrence Katz (Corydon Ireland US News & World Report, 2-16-2016, https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-02-16/the-costs-of-inequality-education-is-the-key-to-it-all~~] Valiaveedu
If inequality starts anywhere, many scholars agree, it's with faulty education. Conversely
AND
educator Horace Mann's vision of public education as society's "balance-wheel."


1ac competitiveness



Contention 2: Competitiveness



Inequality in educational opportunity is causing US growth to stagnate and will devastate competitiveness

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
Primary state and local control over education essentially invite inequality in educational opportunity because of
AND
for the U.S. economy in the years to come.141


Growing US debt will collapse the dollar and the foundations of US power – reducing inequality in education is the vital internal link to maintaining US leadership

Haass 17 ~~[Richard Haass is president of the Council on Foreign Relations He received the 2013 Tipperary International Peace Award for peace works in Northern Ireland. Dr. Haass was director of policy planning for the Department of State, U.S. coordinator for policy toward the future of Afghanistan and U.S. envoy to the Northern Ireland peace process, special assistant to President George H.W. Bush and senior director for Near East and South Asian affairs on the staff of the National Security Council, vice president and director of foreign policy studies at the Brookings Institution, 01-10-2017, "A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order," Part III, Section 12, Penguin Press~~]//Rank
All of which brings me to the debt problem. What makes this issue particularly
AND
the United States, would be a good investment in the country's future.


Declining US economic leadership risks global nuclear conflict

Haass 13 – President of the Council on Foreign Relations, former director of policy planning for the Department of State, master's and Ph.D. from Oxford Univeristy (Richard N, "The World Without America", Project Syndicate, 4/30/13, https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/repairing-the-roots-of-american-power-by-richard-n—haass)//JSL
But, like most temptations, the urge to gloat at America's imperfections and struggles
AND
just for Americans, but for the vast majority of the planet's inhabitants.


Reducing inequity in K-12 education unlocks 70 trillion in long-term growth and will eliminate the US debt crisis

Edley et. Cuéllar 13 ~~[Christopher Edley, Jr. and Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar- part of the The Equity and Excellence Commission (the Commission) which is a federal advisory committee chartered by Congress, operating under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA); 5 U.S.C., App.2. , For Each and Every Child, February 2, 2013, https://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/eec/equity-excellence-commission-report.pdf~~] Valiaveedu
While some young Americans—most of them white and affluent— are getting a
AND
of global competition—this practice is not only unjust but also unwise




Educational inequality is the vital internal link – no other action will have as large of an effect. Robust studies confirm the economic benefits of the plan

Lynch 15 ~~[Robert G. Lynch, Ph.D., State University of New York at Stony Brook, Professor of Economics at Washington College, January 2015, "The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Improving U.S. Educational Outcomes," Washington Center for Equitable Growth, http://equitablegrowth.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/10153405/0115-ach-gap-report.pdf~~]//Rank
This study addresses a key challenge confronting the United States—how to promote both
AND
of the most advantaged children as well as temper reductions in income inequality.


Plan

The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of elementary and secondary education in the United States through Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and create a replacement formula for distribution of funding that targets concentrated poverty, rewards progressive state funding, and rewards state fiscal effort.


1ac – solvency



Contention 2: Solvency



The plan ramps up Title I funding to 45 billion a year – anything short can't account for the scale of concentrated poverty. Linking this to progressive state funding and fiscal effort provides 40% extra resources for low-income students.

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
Congress can then realign the Elementary and Secondary Education Act with its historic mission of
AND
Graduate School of Education. The data are on file with the author.


Funding is the major determinant of adequate outcomes – criticisms don't account for the plan's targeting

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
Third, the ESSA's willingness to largely ignore input equality and adequacy assumes that inputs
AND
the gap in outcomes between low- and middle-income students.299


Critics of funding are based upon outdated evidence with flawed methodologies. Funding is the necessary enabler for all education reform and is supported by an overwhelming consensus of studies

Baker 17 (Bruce D. Baker, Professor in the Department of Educational Theory, Policy, and Administration in the Graduate School of Education at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, former Associate Professor of Teaching and Leadership at the University of Kansas, holds an Ed.D. in Organization and Leadership from the Teachers College of Columbia University, 2017 ("Does Money Matter in Education? Second Edition," Albert Shanker Institute, http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/files/moneymatters_edition2.pdf//SR)
Main sources of doubt
The primary source of doubt to this day remains the
AND
that appropriate combinations of more funding with more accountability may be most promising.


Federal action is key – local resistance undermines state-level funding. Claims the states can act underestimate the scale of necessary change and ignore the regressivity of state taxation

Kleven 10—Professor of Law, Thurgood Marshall School of Law (Thomas, "Federalizing Public Education," Villanova Law Review, 9/4/10, Lexis, 55 Vill. L. Rev. 369)//JLE
Some aspects of today's unequal education could be addressed on the state level. If
AND
as with the federal promotion of equal educational opportunity in other respects today.


A federal statutory duty to increase Title I funding is the only sustainable way to guarantee funding over time. The federal signal is vital to overcoming shifting state and local political coalitions that will undermine funding over time

Hinson, 15 – lawyer; JD at the University of Michigan; former researcher for the Southern Poverty Law Center (Elizabeth, "Mainstreaming Equality in Federal Budgeting: Addressing Educational Inequities With Regard to the States" v20 issue 2, http://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=mjrl italics in original
The next challenge for the United States federal government is to commit funds where fiscal
AND
public schools in the United States may at last be countered and corrected.


Overwhelming historical evidence proves the federal government is the only entity capable of overcoming local resistance to equitable funding

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
By enacting federal legislation and initiatives that embrace each of the elements discussed above,
AND
establish a much closer and more effective marriage between federal influence and responsibility.