AFF --- Title 1


Contention 1 is Equity


The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education decision-making almost entirely to the states – results in escalating inequality

Black 17- Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
On December 10, 2015, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act underwent drastic changes
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-income students require more resources than their peers—not less.28

That weakened Title I funding, creating exemptions and loopholes

Black 17- Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)DH
The randomized guarantee of output equality might be mitigated or cured if instead the ESSA’s
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block this eventuality through regulation but faced congressional rebuke for doing so.271

That means Title I funding is poorly targeted and benefits wealthier populations
Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
DH
The ESSA, however, did almost nothing to ensure adequacy moving forward. First
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, with the wealthiest states receiving the largest per-pupil grants.290

Inequity fuels the school-to-prison pipeline – structurally inhibits communities

Meanes 16 – Partner @Thompson Coburn, LLP; President @ National Bar Association 2014-15. J.D., University of Iowa; M.A., Clark Atlanta University; B.A., Monmouth College (Pamela J., “SCHOOL INEQUALITY: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS: Allen Chair Issue 2016: SCHOOL DISCIPLINE POLICIES: EQUITY IN AMERICAN EDUCATION: THE INTERSECTION OF RACE, CLASS, AND EDUCATION,” University of Richmond Law Review, 3/16, Lexis, 50 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1075)JLE
III. Inequitable School Funding "We must recognize the full human equality of all
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adults
who are an expense to society//, rather than becoming contributing taxpayers.

Kills 100 million people a year

Bezruchka 14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University (“Inequality Kills,” Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)
Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The
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simply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.

Contention 2 is Competitiveness


Education inequality decks competitiveness

Robinson 15- Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “Disrupting Education Federalism” WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW [VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
Primary state and local control over education essentially invite inequalityin educational opportunity because of
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for the U.S. economy in the years to come.141

The plan solves – increasing opportunity in K-12 education unlocks 70 trillion in long-term growth and eliminates the debt crisis

Edley et. Cuéllar 13 [Christopher Edley, Jr. and Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar- part of the The Equity and Excellence Commission (the Commission) which is a federal advisory committee chartered by Congress, operating under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA); 5 U.S.C., App.2. , For Each and Every Child, February 2, 2013, https://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/eec/equity-excellence-commission-report.pdf] Valiaveedu
While some young Americans—most of them white and affluent— are getting a
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age of global competition—this practice is not only unjust but also unwise

Growing debt wrecks the dollar and power projection – that risks nuclear conflict via hotspots – reducing inequality in education is the vital internal link to leadership
Haass 17 [Richard Haass is president of the Council on Foreign Relations He received the 2013 Tipperary International Peace Award for peace works in Northern Ireland. Dr. Haass was director of policy planning for the Department of State, U.S. coordinator for policy toward the future of Afghanistan and U.S. envoy to the Northern Ireland peace process, special assistant to President George H.W. Bush and senior director for Near East and South Asian affairs on the staff of the National Security Council, vice president and director of foreign policy studies at the Brookings Institution, 01-10-2017, "A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order," Part III, Section 12, Penguin Press]//Rank
All of which brings me to the debt problem. What makes this issue particularly
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the United States, would be a good investment in the country’s future.

Contention 3 is Framing


The impacts of the status quo should be prioritized---extinction is inevitable and exaggerated so it’s only a question of how much suffering we prevent now
Garrick and McCarthy 15- [B. John Garrick, Founder of UCLA B. John Garrick Institute for the Risk Sciences and retired CEO and Chairman of PLG, Inc – Roger L. McCarthy, Senior Fellow, UCLA B. John Garrick Institute for the Risk Sciences, Principal of McCarthy Engineering, and formerly CEO and Chairman of Exponent, Inc, “Taking Action to Prepare Society for Catastrophic Risks” B. John Garrick Institute for the Risk Sciences, UCLA Engineering, https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54628adae4b0f587f5d3e03f/t/57d83e48e58c62769f265609/1473789514378
/Taking+Action+to+Prepare+Society+for+Catastrophic+
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makes more challenging the rational quantification and serious scientific consideration of such risks.

Intervening Actors is the most ethical evaluation of consequences: the plan should only be held accountable for it’s own actions
Harris 08, Alex Harris, Alex Harris is an associate for the Competitive Enterprise Institute, 8-15-2008, ("Philosopher's Corner: The Principle of Intervening Action," Competitive Enterprise Institute, https://cei.org/blog/philosophers-corner-principle-intervening-action BN)
I promised, and I shall deliver. As it's my last day as an
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of non-consequentialism. It also suggests an implausible feature of consequentialism.

The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of elementary and secondary education in the United States through Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and create a replacement formula for distribution of funding that targets concentrated poverty, rewards progressive state funding, and rewards state fiscal effort.


The plan ramps up Title I to 45 billion a year – anything short can’t account for concentrated poverty
Black 17- Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
Congress can then realign the Elementary and Secondary Education Act with its historic mission of
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Graduate School of Education. The data are on file with the author.

The plan substantially reduces inequality in school financing – both funding and regulations are key

Robinson, 16 - * Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “No QUICK Fix FOR EQUITY AND EXCELLENCE: THE VIRTUES OF INCREMENTAL SHIFTS IN EDUCATION FEDERALISM” 27 Stan. L. & Pol'y Rev. 201 2016, Hein Online)
Federal funding through ESEA could help states address a substantial component of state funding shortfalls
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role be enacted as standalone conditions for receipt of any federal education funds.

Funding is the major determinant of adequate outcomes

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, “Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act”, 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
Third, the ESSA’s willingness to largely ignore input equality and adequacy assumes that inputs
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the gap in outcomes between low- and middle-income students.299

Only federal intervention can address the scale of inequality – states lack capacity and resources, and their funding mechanisms are regressive and magnify inequality

Robinson, 12 - Professor of Law, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “The Past, Present, and Future of Equal Educational Opportunity: A Call for a New Theory of Education Federalism” The University of Chicago Law Review [79:429, https://lawreview.uchicago.edu/sites/lawreview.uchicago.edu/files/14%20Robinson%20BKR.pdf)//DH
Before examining why the federal government should lead the nation’s efforts to achieve equal educational
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of government that is the most efficient and effective at accomplishing it.91

Federal leadership is key – overcomes local resistance to reform more effectively than the states

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “Disrupting Education Federalism” WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW [VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
By enacting federal legislation and initiatives that embrace each of the elements discussed above,
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establish a much closer and more effective marriage between federal influence and responsibility.

Federal action is key – bully pulpit, research, dissemination, leadership

Robinson, 16 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, “FISHER'S CAUTIONARY TALE AND THE URGENT NEED FOR EQUAL ACCESS TO AN EXCELLENT EDUCATION” 130 Harv. L. Rev. 185, November, lexis)
The federal government must establish equal access to an excellent education as an urgent national
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that legislative reform consistent with my proposal is unlikely in the near term.