2n/1a - Nate - natgla2@nilesk12.org - if you need neg info - 312-623-4983
2a/1n - Ali - khambati.ali@gmail.com - if you need aff info- 214-732-8707

both of us use he/him pronouns

as of now our primary aff is title 1, but we are not sure that it will be read in every instance

AFF #1 - CTE - budgets - competitiveness - agriculture


1ac – plan

The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of secondary career and technical education, including increasing formula grants distributed to states, establishing of a CTE Pathways Trust Fund, and expanding Social Innovation Financing.

1ac – agriculture

Severe food shortages are coming now – they will ensure multiple paths to extinction – and a lack of academic interest increases the odds

Heneghan 15 ~~[Carolyn, freelance writer with experience in food and agriculture systems around the world, "Where food crises and global conflict could collide" Fooddive 1/22/15, http://www.fooddive.com/news/where-food-crises-and-global-conflict-could-collide/350837 //GK~~]
World War III is unimaginable for many, but some experts believe that not only
AND
find ways to solve the problem before it becomes something they cannot control.

It's the most credible scenario for nuclear war

FDI 12 (Future Directions International, a Research institute providing strategic analysis of Australia's global interests; citing Lindsay Falvery, PhD in Agricultural Science and former Professor at the University of Melbourne's Institute of Land and Environment, "Food and Water Insecurity: International Conflict Triggers & Potential Conflict Points," http://www.futuredirections.org.au/workshop-papers/537-international-conflict-triggers-and-potential-conflict-points-resulting-from-food-and-water-insecurity.html)
There is a growing appreciation that the conflicts in the next century will most likely
AND
identify famine as a potential trigger for conflicts and possibly even nuclear war.

It's a global threat – US ag ships worldwide

Edmark 15 ~~[Dave, U of A System Division of Agriculture, "Food security vital for national interests, world markets," Cattle News Network 10/23/15, http://www.cattlenetwork.com/news/food- security-vital- national-interests- world-markets //GK~~]
Improving global food security should be a U.S. priority because it is
AND
companies spending $8 billion to build infrastructure and supply chains in Africa.

The need for skilled agriculture workers is key – improving CTE is critical to ensure a sufficient amount of graduates

Willis 17 ~~[Victoria, masters in agricultural education from Clemson University, "Nurturing our Established Roots: The Smith-Hughes Act as a Model for Agricultural Education Career Preparation" The Agricultural Education Magazine Vol 89 Issue 4, January 2017, pg 27 //GK~~]
Considering retirement rates, the need to supply the STEM pipeline, and the worlds'
AND
take on the challenges of the future for the betterment of our society.

CTE ensures agricultural literacy, improves student perception of agricultural careers, and increases enrollment in urban schools – that causes an influx of new workers to sustain the agricultural sector

Trexler 16 ~~[Tiffany, masters of science in agricultural education from California State University, Chico, "THE ADDITION OF AN AGRICULTURE MECHANICS PATHWAY TO BEAR CREEK HIGH SCHOOL" CSU Chico spring 2016, pgs 12-15 //GK~~]
One of the reasons there is a need to expand CTE in general, but
AND
mechanics pathway was researched and planned, with the intent of rapid adoption.

1ac – budgets

State budget shortfalls slow economic growth and ensure they lack sufficient revenue to fund pensions

Donlan 17 ~~[Thomas G. Donlan, editor at Barron's, "There's a Hole in State Pensions," Feb 11, 2017, http://www.barrons.com/articles/theres-a-hole-in-state-pensions-1486794298~~]
Turn away from the lurid deficit spectacles in Washington to examine the declining state of
AND
a firm arguing for tougher standards "may be disqualified from further consideration."

Left unchecked, state pensions will be the next subprime mortgage crisis —- investors are already downgrading state credit

Booth 17 ~~[Danielle DiMartino Booth, President of MoneyStrong, former Federal Reserve insider, March 24, 2017, "Pension Crisis Too Big for Markets to Ignore," Bloomberg, https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-03-24/pension-crisis-too-big-for-markets-to-ignore~~]
In late 2006, Aaron Krowne, a computer scientist and mathematician, started a
AND
that shield their portfolios? Or will it be none of the above?

That'll collapse the economy

Reeves 3/24 ~~[Jeff Reeves is a stock analyst and executive editor of InvestorPlace.com. His commentary has also appeared on CNBC, Fox Business, USA Today, and the Wall Street Journal network, "Your pension could be at the center of America's next financial crisis," March 24, 2017, http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/finance/325564-the-pension-crisis-will-be-americas-next-financial-crisis~~]
I'm not a fan of the "greed is good" mentality of Wall Street
AND
need Social Security, even in an imperfect form, well beyond 2034?

The impact is diversionary war

Foster 16 ~~[Dennis M., professor of international studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, "Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?," http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home~~]
If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
AND
ramifications of an economic downturn with a President Trump in the White House.

It goes nuclear and causes extinction

Street 16 ~~[Tim, fellow of the Sustainable Security Programme at the Oxford Research Group, previously researcher with the British American Security Information Council, Ph.D. from Warwick University, 11/30/16, "President Trump: Successor to the Nuclear Throne," http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefing_papers_and_reports/president_trump_successor_nuclear_throne~~]
Donald Trump's arrival in the White House as US President has deeply unnerved people from
AND
to widespread anger, confusion and unrest, both at home and abroad.

Luckily, the plan solves – CTE stimulates economic growth through a staggering multiplier effect and rescues state budgets

Ogul 17 – writer for Orlando Sentinel (David, "How to improve a state economy through technical education", 2/17/17, Orlando Sentinel, http://www.orlandosentinel.com/brandpublishing/forstudentsnotprofit/os-how-to-improve-a-state-economy-20170217-story.html//GHS-AK)
For every dollar Wisconsin taxpayers invest in their technical college system, they get back
AND
. "We have been very fortunate and very pleased with their performance."

It also galvanizes private sector support for secondary CTE education through social innovation financing and competitive grants

Hasak 16 ~~[Jonathan Hasak is a Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a former Teach for America corps member who taught in the Oakland Unified School District, "A summer surprise: the case for CTE reform," 7/1/16, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/286111-a-summer-surprise-the-case-for-cte-reform~~]
In less than 16 days, the United States Congress will adjourn for their summer
AND
remaining days in session to reauthorize the Perkins Career and Technical Education Act.

Stimulus spending is key – only way to get out of the debt hole

Bryan 16 ~~[Bob, Business Insider, "Only one thing that can jumpstart the global economy right now — but no government is willing to do it," Feb 22, 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2http://www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2~~]
Global economic growth is sluggish, to say the least. The low-growth
AND
, Srivastava said such stimulus is being treated as "a last resort."

States increasing funding on their own would run afoul of balanced-budget requirements and further downgrade their creditworthiness —- only increasing federal block grant spending can solve fiscal shortfalls

Gamage 10 ~~[David Gamage, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), "Preventing State Budget Crises: Managing the Fiscal Volatility Problem," California Law Review, 98 Calif. L. Rev. 749, June, 2010, lexis~~]
Politicians generally benefit both from cutting taxes and from increasing spending on popular programs.
AND
balanced budget constraint itself, thereby reducing its potential to provide countercyclical support.

1ac – competitiveness

Skill gaps and a declining middle class threaten American industries and manufacturing – CTE programs are crucial to a productive workforce

Miner 16 (Andrew Miner is a former intern with the Education Policy team at the Center for American Progress., October 11^^th^^, 2016, "Rebuilding the High School to Middle Class Pipeline", https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/news/2016/10/11/145341/rebuilding-the-high-school-to-middle-class-pipeline/, nassal)
In December of 2014, The Washington Post reported on the decline of manufacturing in
AND
of them include mentoring, an open and inclusive program, and paid internships

Skills training produces a flexible and innovative workforce that revitalizes manufacturing and tech innovation

Atlantic Council 17 ~~[The Atlantic Council is a nonpartisan organization that promotes constructive US leadership and engagement in international affairs, Keeping America's Innovative Edge, April 2017, director of the Atlantic Council's Foresight, Strategy, and Risks Initiative in the Brent Scowcroft Center on International Security, http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/images/publications/Keeping_Americas_Innovative_Edge_web_0404.pdf~~]
HUMAN CAPITAL EXAMPLE Rethinking Skills and Worker Training Even the most enlightened immigration scheme for
AND
skilled-employment needs and then linking its educational system to that trajectory.

It's key to competiveness and bolsters growth

Litow and Suh 15, Litow vice president, corporate citizenship and corporate affairs, and president, IBM international. (Grace Suh, Stanley, October 2015 "TRANSFORMING HIGH SCHOOL AND ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE OF AMERICA'S COMPETITIVENESS" https://www.ibm.com/blogs/citizen-ibm/wp-content/uploads/Transforming-High-School-and-Addressing-the-Challenge-of-Americas-Competitiveness.pdf)//eliben
Sadly, America's young people are woefully unprepared to meet the demands of an increasingly
AND
-class track rather than as an alternative pathway remains a real concern.

Social innovations ensure long-term competitiveness

Costa 11 ~~[Kristina Costa, Special Assistant at the Center for American Progress. 10-19-2011 "Financing Tools for Social Innovation," Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/2011/10/19/10435/innovation-for-the-public-good-financing-tools-for-social-innovation/~~] /adres
Last week we examined why strong leadership is essential to public-sector innovation.
AND
Next week we'll consider what makes an agency's culture most able to innovate.

Competitiveness is key to power projection and hard power

Colby 14 - Robert M. Gates Senior Fellow at the Center for a New American Security, Policy Advisor to the Secretary of Defense's Representative for the new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, graduated from Harvard, J.D. from Yale, term member of the Council on Foreign Relations, member of the International Institute of Strategic Studies, Elbridge Colby, 7/3/2014, Foreign Policy, "Have we hit peak America?", http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2014/07/03/have_we_hit_peak_america, 8/4/2015,
FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 200 YEARS, MOST GROWTH IS OCCURRING IN THE DEVELOPING
AND
guided munitions and thus threaten U.S. power-projection capabilities.

Collapse of the economy kills economic leadership and heg- collapse of either causes extinction

Joseph Lieberman and Jon Kyl 2015 (Joseph Lieberman- senior counsel at Kasowitz Benson Torres and Friedman LLP. Former United States senator and attorney general of the State of Connecticut. Jon Kyl- sat on the powerful Senate Finance Committee, where he was the top Republican on the Subcommittee on Taxation and Internal Revenue Service Oversight, also served as the ranking Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism. "Why American Leadership Still Matters" https://www.aei.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Why-American-Leadership-Still-Matters_online.pdf) mba-alb
This report reflects the fundamental consensus of our project's members that American global leadership is
AND
US business. These issues all underscore the need for stronger US leadership.

US relative leadership over rising powers is the only check on global conflict—robust standing is key

Kagan, 17—don't call it a comeback (Robert, "Backing Into World War III," http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/02/06/backing-into-world-war-iii-russia-china-trump-obama/, dml)
In such times, it has always been tempting to believe that geopolitical competition can
AND
no longer possible to sustain but simply because they chose to stop trying.






AFF #2 - Title 1- adv - competitiveness, equity, econ


1AC - adv

ADV

achievement adv


The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education funding decisions almost entirely to the states – results in escalating inequality through funding missteps
Black 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
On December 10, 2015, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act underwent drastic changes
AND
-income students require more resources than their peers—not less.28


ESSA weakened Title I's comparability and supplement standards – that creates exemptions from equity requirements
Black 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)DH
The randomized guarantee of output equality might be mitigated or cured if instead the ESSA's
AND
block this eventuality through regulation but faced congressional rebuke for doing so.271


scenario 1 – equity


The consequences are devastating – fuels school-to-prison pipelines and structurally disenfranchise communities
Meanes 16 – Partner @Thompson Coburn, LLP; President @ National Bar Association 2014-15. J.D., University of Iowa; M.A., Clark Atlanta University; B.A., Monmouth College (Pamela J., "SCHOOL INEQUALITY: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS: Allen Chair Issue 2016: SCHOOL DISCIPLINE POLICIES: EQUITY IN AMERICAN EDUCATION: THE INTERSECTION OF RACE, CLASS, AND EDUCATION," University of Richmond Law Review, 3/16, Lexis, 50 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1075)
JLE
III. Inequitable School Funding "We must recognize the full human equality of all
AND
adults who are an expense to society, rather than becoming contributing taxpayers.


Inequality is structural violence – 1 in 3 deaths annually outweigh
Bezruchka 14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University ("Inequality Kills," Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)
Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The
AND
simply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.


scenario 2 – competitiveness


Inequality in educational opportunity is causing US growth to stagnate and will devastate competitiveness
Robinson 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
Primary state and local control over education essentially invite inequalityin educational opportunity because of
AND
for the U.S. economy in the years to come.141


Reducing inequity in K-12 education unlocks 70 trillion in long-term growth and will eliminate the US debt crisis
Edley et. Cuéllar 13 ~~[Christopher Edley, Jr. and Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar- part of the The Equity and Excellence Commission (the Commission) which is a federal advisory committee chartered by Congress, operating under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA); 5 U.S.C., App.2. , For Each and Every Child, February 2, 2013, https://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/eec/equity-excellence-commission-report.pdf~~] Valiaveedu
While some young Americans—most of them white and affluent— are getting a
AND
age of global competition—this practice is not only unjust but also unwise


Growing US debt will collapse the foundations of US power – reducing inequality in education is the vital internal link to maintaining US leadership
Haass 17 ~~[Richard Haass is president of the Council on Foreign Relations He received the 2013 Tipperary International Peace Award for peace works in Northern Ireland. Dr. Haass was director of policy planning for the Department of State, U.S. coordinator for policy toward the future of Afghanistan and U.S. envoy to the Northern Ireland peace process, special assistant to President George H.W. Bush and senior director for Near East and South Asian affairs on the staff of the National Security Council, vice president and director of foreign policy studies at the Brookings Institution, 01-10-2017, "A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order," Part III, Section 12, Penguin Press~~]//Rank
All of which brings me to the debt problem. What makes this issue particularly
AND
the United States, would be a good investment in the country's future.


Economic hegemony is a filter for stability – solves hotspots and deters challengers
Joseph Lieberman and Jon Kyl 2015 (Joseph Lieberman- senior counsel at Kasowitz Benson Torres and Friedman LLP. Former United States senator and attorney general of the State of Connecticut. Jon Kyl- sat on the powerful Senate Finance Committee, where he was the top Republican on the Subcommittee on Taxation and Internal Revenue Service Oversight, also served as the ranking Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism. "Why American Leadership Still Matters" https://www.aei.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Why-American-Leadership-Still-Matters_online.pdf) mba-alb
This report reflects the fundamental consensus of our project's members that American global leadership is
AND
US business. These issues all underscore the need for stronger US leadership.


There is no alternative system – backing down causes great power war
Kagan 17—don't call it a comeback (Robert, "Backing Into World War III," http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/02/06/backing-into-world-war-iii-russia-china-trump-obama/, dml)
In such times, it has always been tempting to believe that geopolitical competition can
AND
no longer possible to sustain but simply because they chose to stop trying.

stimulus adv


State budget shortfalls slow economic growth and ensure they lack sufficient revenue to fund pensions
Donlan 17 ~~[Thomas G. Donlan, editor at Barron's, "There's a Hole in State Pensions," Feb 11, 2017, http://www.barrons.com/articles/theres-a-hole-in-state-pensions-1486794298~~]
Turn away from the lurid deficit spectacles in Washington to examine the declining state of
AND
a firm arguing for tougher standards "may be disqualified from further consideration."


Left unchecked, state pensions will be the next subprime mortgage crisis —- investors are already downgrading state credit
Booth 17 ~~[Danielle DiMartino Booth, President of MoneyStrong, former Federal Reserve insider, March 24, 2017, "Pension Crisis Too Big for Markets to Ignore," Bloomberg, https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-03-24/pension-crisis-too-big-for-markets-to-ignore~~]
In late 2006, Aaron Krowne, a computer scientist and mathematician, started a
AND
that shield their portfolios? Or will it be none of the above?


That'll collapse the economy
Reeves 3/24 ~~[Jeff Reeves is a stock analyst and executive editor of InvestorPlace.com. His commentary has also appeared on CNBC, Fox Business, USA Today, and the Wall Street Journal network, "Your pension could be at the center of America's next financial crisis," March 24, 2017, http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/finance/325564-the-pension-crisis-will-be-americas-next-financial-crisis~~]
I'm not a fan of the "greed is good" mentality of Wall Street
AND
need Social Security, even in an imperfect form, well beyond 2034?


The impact is diversionary war
Foster 16 ~~[Dennis M., professor of international studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, "Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?," http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home~~]
If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
AND
ramifications of an economic downturn with a President Trump in the White House.


that causes cyber war and nuclear war
Tønnesson 15- Stein Tønnesson 15, Research Professor, Peace Research Institute Oslo; Leader of East Asia Peace program, Uppsala University, 2015, "Deterrence, interdependence and Sino–US peace," International Area Studies Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, p. 297-311
Several recent works on China and Sino–US relations have made substantial contributions to
AND
each other, with a view to obliging Washington or Beijing to intervene.


The plan's federal spending independently boosts the economy by creating jobs and investing in "green buildings" that generate long-term savings
Filardo et al. 11 ~~[Mary Filardo is the executive director and founder of the 21^^st Century School Fund, 08-11-2011, "Creating Jobs Through FAST!, a Proposed New Infrastructure Program to Repair America's Public Schools," 21st Century School Fund, http://www.21csf.org/best-home/docuploads/pub/237_FixAmericasSchoolsFinal.pdf~~]Rank
The average U.S. public school building is 40 years old, and
AND
support efforts to dramatically improve the results of our nation's public education system.


Stimulus spending is key – only way to get out of the debt hole
Bryan 16 ~~[Bob, Business Insider, "Only one thing that can jumpstart the global economy right now — but no government is willing to do it," Feb 22, 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2http:
www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2~~]
Global economic growth is sluggish, to say the least. The low-growth
AND
, Srivastava said such stimulus is being treated as "a last resort."

PLAN


The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of elementary and secondary education in the United States through Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and create a replacement formula for distribution of funding that targets concentrated poverty, rewards progressive state funding, and rewards state fiscal effort


SOLVENCY


The plan ramps up Title I funding to 45 billion a year – anything short can't account for the scale of concentrated poverty. Linking this to progressive state funding and fiscal effort provides 40% extra resources for low-income students.
Black 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
Congress can then realign the Elementary and Secondary Education Act with its historic mission of
AND
Graduate School of Education. The data are on file with the author.


Funding is the major determinant of adequate outcomes – criticisms don't account for the plan's targeting
Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)DH
Third, the ESSA's willingness to largely ignore input equality and adequacy assumes that inputs
AND
the gap in outcomes between low- and middle-income students.299


Critics of funding are based upon outdated evidence with flawed methodologies. Funding is the necessary enabler for all education reform and is supported by an overwhelming consensus of studies
Baker 17 (Bruce D. Baker, Professor in the Department of Educational Theory, Policy, and Administration in the Graduate School of Education at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, former Associate Professor of Teaching and Leadership at the University of Kansas, holds an Ed.D. in Organization and Leadership from the Teachers College of Columbia University, 2017 ("Does Money Matter in Education? Second Edition," Albert Shanker Institute, http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/files/moneymatters_edition2.pdf
SR)
Main sources of doubt The primary source of doubt to this day remains the above
AND
that appropriate combinations of more funding with more accountability may be most promising.


Federal action is key – local resistance undermines state-level funding. Claims the states can act underestimate the scale of necessary change and ignore the regressivity of state taxation
Kleven 10—Professor of Law, Thurgood Marshall School of Law (Thomas, "Federalizing Public Education," Villanova Law Review, 9/4/10, Lexis, 55 Vill. L. Rev. 369)//JLE
Some aspects of today's unequal education could be addressed on the state level. If
AND
as with the federal promotion of equal educational opportunity in other respects today.


A federal statutory duty to increase Title I funding is the only sustainable way to guarantee funding over time. The federal signal is vital to overcoming shifting state and local political coalitions that will undermine funding over time
Hinson 15 – lawyer; JD at the University of Michigan; former researcher for the Southern Poverty Law Center (Elizabeth, "Mainstreaming Equality in Federal Budgeting: Addressing Educational Inequities With Regard to the States" v20 issue 2, http://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=mjrl italics in original
The next challenge for the United States federal government is to commit funds where fiscal
AND
public schools in the United States may at last be countered and corrected.


Overwhelming historical evidence proves the federal government is the only entity capable of overcoming local resistance to equitable funding
Robinson 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
By enacting federal legislation and initiatives that embrace each of the elements discussed above,
AND
establish a much closer and more effective marriage between federal influence and responsibility.

The United States federal government should substantially increase its Title I funding for elementary and secondary education in the United States, and should create new formulas for distribution of Title I funding based upon reducing concentrated poverty and rewarding progressive state funding and fiscal effort.