Contention 1: State Budgets

State budget shortfalls slow economic growth and ensure they lack sufficient revenue to fund pensions

Donlan 17 ~~[Thomas G. Donlan, editor at Barron's, "There's a Hole in State Pensions," Feb 11, 2017, http://www.barrons.com/articles/theres-a-hole-in-state-pensions-1486794298~~]
Turn away from the lurid deficit spectacles in Washington to examine the declining state of
a firm arguing for tougher standards "may be disqualified from further consideration."

Left unchecked, state pensions will be the next subprime mortgage crisis —- investors are already downgrading state credit

Booth 17 ~~[Danielle DiMartino Booth, President of MoneyStrong, former Federal Reserve insider, March 24, 2017, "Pension Crisis Too Big for Markets to Ignore," Bloomberg, https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-03-24/pension-crisis-too-big-for-markets-to-ignore~~]
In late 2006, Aaron Krowne, a computer scientist and mathematician, started a
that shield their portfolios? Or will it be none of the above?

That collapses the US economy

Reeves 3/24 ~~[Jeff Reeves is a stock analyst and executive editor of InvestorPlace.com. His commentary has also appeared on CNBC, Fox Business, USA Today, and the Wall Street Journal network, "Your pension could be at the center of America's next financial crisis," March 24, 2017, http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/finance/325564-the-pension-crisis-will-be-americas-next-financial-crisis~~]
I'm not a fan of the "greed is good" mentality of Wall Street
need Social Security, even in an imperfect form, well beyond 2034?

The impact is diversionary war

Foster 12/19 ~~[Dennis M., professor of international studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, "Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?," http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home~~]
If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
ramifications of an economic downturn with a President Trump in the White House.

It goes nuclear and causes extinction

Street 16 ~~[Tim, fellow of the Sustainable Security Programme at the Oxford Research Group, previously researcher with the British American Security Information Council, Ph.D. from Warwick University, 11/30/16, "President Trump: Successor to the Nuclear Throne," http://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/publications/briefing_papers_and_reports/president_trump_successor_nuclear_throne~~]
Donald Trump's arrival in the White House as US President has deeply unnerved people from
to widespread anger, confusion and unrest, both at home and abroad.

Independently Slow US growth causes extinction

Richard N. Haass 13, President of the Council on Foreign Relations, 4/30/13, "The World Without America," http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/repairing-the-roots-of-american-power-by-richard-n—haass
Let me posit a radical idea: The most critical threat facing the United States
just for Americans, but for the vast majority of the planet's inhabitants.

Federal CTE funding critical to avoid impending budget crisis and stimulate economic growth

CCD 17, ~~[Published by the American Association of Community Colleges, 6-23-2017, "Governors support CTE, job-training funding – Community College Daily," Community College Daily, http://www.ccdaily.com/2017/05/governors-support-cte-job-training-funding/~~]
The National Governors Association (NGA) doesn't often wade into debates over federal appropriations
to ensure students are prepared for a 21st century economy," NGA said.

States increasing funding on their own would run afoul of balanced-budget requirements and further downgrade their creditworthiness —- only increasing federal block grant spending can solve fiscal shortfalls

Gamage 10 ~~[David Gamage, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), "Preventing State Budget Crises: Managing the Fiscal Volatility Problem," California Law Review, 98 Calif. L. Rev. 749, June, 2010, lexis~~]
Politicians generally benefit both from cutting taxes and from increasing spending on popular programs.
balanced budget constraint itself, thereby reducing its potential to provide countercyclical support.

Federal stimulus key to kickstart growth —- fiscal policy has more leverage than monetary policy

Bryan 16 ~~[Bob, Business Insider, "Only one thing that can jumpstart the global economy right now — but no government is willing to do it," Feb 22, 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2http://www.businessinsider.com/fiscal-stimulus-could-jumpstart-economy-2016-2~~]
Global economic growth is sluggish, to say the least. The low-growth
, Srivastava said such stimulus is being treated as "a last resort."

Contention 2: Food Security

Severe food shortages are coming now – they will ensure multiple paths to extinction – and a lack of academic interest increases the odds

Heneghan 15 ~~[Carolyn, freelance writer with experience in food and agriculture systems around the world, "Where food crises and global conflict could collide" Fooddive 1/22/15, http://www.fooddive.com/news/where-food-crises-and-global-conflict-could-collide/350837 //GK~~]
World War III is unimaginable for many, but some experts believe that not only
find ways to solve the problem before it becomes something they cannot control.

US agriculture ships internationally – that's key to global food security

Edmark 15 ~~[Dave, U of A System Division of Agriculture, "Food security vital for national interests, world markets," Cattle News Network 10/23/15, http://www.cattlenetwork.com/news/food- security-vital- national-interests- world-markets //GK~~]
Improving global food security should be a U.S. priority because it is
companies spending $8 billion to build infrastructure and supply chains in Africa.

The need for skilled agriculture workers will continue to grow – improving CTE is critical to ensure a sufficient amount of graduates

Willis 17 ~~[Victoria, masters in agricultural education from Clemson University, "Nurturing our Established Roots: The Smith-Hughes Act as a Model for Agricultural Education Career Preparation" The Agricultural Education Magazine Vol 89 Issue 4, January 2017, pg 27 //GK~~]
Considering retirement rates, the need to supply the STEM pipeline, and the worlds'
take on the challenges of the future for the betterment of our society.

CTE ensures agricultural literacy, improves student perception of agricultural careers, and increases enrollment in urban schools – that causes an influx of new workers to sustain the agricultural sector

Trexler 16 ~~[Tiffany, masters of science in agricultural education from California State University, Chico, "THE ADDITION OF AN AGRICULTURE MECHANICS PATHWAY TO BEAR CREEK HIGH SCHOOL" CSU Chico spring 2016, pgs 12-15 //GK~~]
One of the reasons there is a need to expand CTE in general, but
mechanics pathway was researched and planned, with the intent of rapid adoption.

Contention 3: Cyber

The cyber workforce gap makes the US unprepared for a large scale cyber attack now

Kim 5/19/17 (Anne Kim - Senior Writer at the Washington Monthly. She is also a senior fellow at the Aspen Institute's initiative on financial security and a senior fellow at the Progressive Policy Institute. Before joining the Monthly, Anne served as senior policy strategist at the nonprofit CFED, as the economic program director at the think tank Third Way, and as legislative director and deputy chief of staff to Rep. Jim Cooper – "Trump Is Ignoring America's Looming Cybersecurity Threat" – 5/19/17 - http://washingtonmonthly.com/2017/05/19/trump-is-ignoring-americas-looming-cybersecurity-threats/)/TK
The "ransomware" attack that crippled computer systems around the globe last week
won't get the money or the attention it deserves – until too late.

Cyber attacks cause escalation and extinction – they alone can destroy societies

Van der Meer 16 (Sico van der Meer - Research Fellow at the Clingendael Institute. His research is focussing on non-conventional weapons like Weapons of Mass Destruction and cyber weapons from a strategic policy perspective – "Cyber Warfare and Nuclear Weapons: Game-changing Consequences?" – 12/6/16 -https://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/SWP_Paper_Chapter_Sico_van_der_Meer.pdf)/TK
Most nuclear weapons systems were designed decades ago, when manipulations of computer
cheaper cyber weapons with more or less the same deterrent effect.

The plan solves - CTE is key to STEM education

Wolfe 6/26/17 (Alexis Wolfe - science policy analyst and writer for FYI and is currently working on expanding FYI's multimedia portfolio. Prior to joining AIP, she was an Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Fellow and NOAA Sea Grant Knauss Marine Policy Fellow at the U.S. Department of Energy, focusing on science communication – "Career and Technical Education Emerging as Vehicle for STEM in Trump Era" – 6/26/17 - https://www.aip.org/fyi/2017/career-and-technical-education-emerging-vehicle-stem-trump-era)/TK
Experiential, work-based career and technical education programs are receiving attention from policymakers
community college students with internship positions at one of 15 national energy laboratories.

Improving technical and STEM education in primary and secondary schools is key to establish a sustainable pipeline of workers into the cyber security field – that resolves the workforce gap

Kay et al 12 (David J. Kay - Research Analyst in the Center for Technology and National Security Policy (CTNSP), Institute for National Strategic Studies, at the National Defense University; Terry J. Pudas - Senior Research Fellow in CTNSP; Brett Young - Research Assistant in CTNSP – "Preparing the Pipeline: The U.S. Cyber Workforce for the Future" – August 2012 - http://ctnsp.dodlive.mil/files/2013/07/DH-072.pdf)/TK
It is clear to cyber experts and observers inside and outside government that many of
-, and long-term human capital strategies for government departments and agencies.


The United States federal government should substantially increase career and technical education formula grants for public secondary education, including a Career and Technical Education Pathways Trust Fund supplemented by Social Innovation Financing.

Contention 4: Solvency

The plan galvanizes private sector support for secondary CTE education through social innovation financing and competitive grants

Hasak 16 ~~[Jonathan Hasak is a Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a former Teach for America corps member who taught in the Oakland Unified School District, "A summer surprise: the case for CTE reform," 7/1/16, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/286111-a-summer-surprise-the-case-for-cte-reform~~]
In less than 16 days, the United States Congress will adjourn for their summer
remaining days in session to reauthorize the Perkins Career and Technical Education Act.

Linking high schools to CTE programs administered by the private sector ensures the development of a workforce that overcomes looming productivity and skills gaps

Jackson and Hasak 14 ~~[John H. Jackson is the president and CEO of the Schott Foundation for Public Education, held leadership positions at the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and has served as an adjunct professor of Race, Gender, and Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute, and Jonathan Hasak is a recent graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, "Look Beyond The Label: Reframing, Reimagining, and Reinvesting in CTE," American Educator, Fall 2014, https://www.aft.org/ae/fall2014/jackson_hasak~~]
2. Address the Student-Readiness and Teaching-Training Gaps
Despite being
greater efficiency, increased student choice, and wider access to education.18

Social innovation financing reduces runaway spending and encourages competition

Costa 11 ~~[Kristina Costa, Special Assistant at the Center for American Progress. 10-19-2011 "Financing Tools for Social Innovation," Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/2011/10/19/10435/innovation-for-the-public-good-financing-tools-for-social-innovation/~~] /adres
Last week we examined why strong leadership is essential to public-sector innovation.
Next week we'll consider what makes an agency's culture most able to innovate.

Title 1


*this is the aff we will be reading at the inter-lab debates 7/19 and 7/20

The United States federal government should substantially increase its Title I funding for elementary and secondary education in the United States, and should create new formulas for distribution of Title I funding based upon reducing concentrated poverty and rewarding progressive state funding and fiscal effort.

Contention 1: Equity

The Every Student Succeeds Act devolved education funding decisions almost entirely to the states. The result will be rapidly escalating inequality where more Title I funding goes to the wealthiest schools

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
On December 10, 2015, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act underwent drastic changes
-income students require more resources than their peers—not less.28

ESSA weakened Title I's comparability, maintenance of effort and supplement not supplant standards – that makes the vast majority of school financing exempt from equity requirements

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The randomized guarantee of output equality might be mitigated or cured if instead the ESSA's
block this eventuality through regulation but faced congressional rebuke for doing so.271

Title I funding formulas favor wealthier districts

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)//DH
The ESSA, however, did almost nothing to ensure adequacy moving forward. First
, with the wealthiest states receiving the largest per-pupil grants.290

Unequal funding denies millions access to an excellent education

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
The United States continues to tolerate a longstanding educational opportunity gap. Today, it
in low-income and high-income families also has widened. n7

The consequences are devastating and fuel school-to-prison pipelines

Meanes, 16 – Partner @Thompson Coburn, LLP; President @ National Bar Association 2014-15. J.D., University of Iowa; M.A., Clark Atlanta University; B.A., Monmouth College (Pamela J., "SCHOOL INEQUALITY: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS: Allen Chair Issue 2016: SCHOOL DISCIPLINE POLICIES: EQUITY IN AMERICAN EDUCATION: THE INTERSECTION OF RACE, CLASS, AND EDUCATION," University of Richmond Law Review, 3/16, Lexis, 50 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1075)//JLE
III. Inequitable School Funding
"We must recognize the full human equality
adults who are an expense to society, rather than becoming contributing taxpayers.

Inequality kills tens of thousands each year

Bezruchka, '14 — Senior Lecturer in Health Services and Global Health at the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, holds a Master of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from Stanford University ("Inequality Kills," Divided: The Perils of Our Growing Inequality, Edited by David Cay Johnston, p.194-195)
Everyone in a society gains when children grow up to be healthy adults. The
simply produces a lethally large social and economic gap between rich and poor.

Reducing social inequality begins within k-12 schools—-overwhelming evidence supports

Corydon Ireland 16, ~~[Corydon Ireland Contributor- staff writer for the Harvard Gazette. Harvard Gazette staff writer Christina Pazzanese contributed to this report, which is t hird in a series on what Harvard scholars are doing to identify and understand inequality "The Costs of Inequality: Education Is the Key to It All", US News & World Report, 2-16-2016, https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-02-16/the-costs-of-inequality-education-is-the-key-to-it-all~~] Valiaveedu
If inequality starts anywhere, many scholars agree, it's with faulty education. Conversely
educator Horace Mann's vision of public education as society's "balance-wheel."

Contention 2: Competitiveness

Inequality in educational opportunity is causing US growth to stagnate and will devastate competitiveness

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
Primary state and local control over education essentially invite inequality in educational opportunity because of
for the U.S. economy in the years to come.141

Growing US debt will collapse the dollar and the foundations of US power – reducing inequality in education is the vital internal link to maintaining US leadership

Haass 17 ~~[Richard Haass is president of the Council on Foreign Relations He received the 2013 Tipperary International Peace Award for peace works in Northern Ireland. Dr. Haass was director of policy planning for the Department of State, U.S. coordinator for policy toward the future of Afghanistan and U.S. envoy to the Northern Ireland peace process, special assistant to President George H.W. Bush and senior director for Near East and South Asian affairs on the staff of the National Security Council, vice president and director of foreign policy studies at the Brookings Institution, 01-10-2017, "A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order," Part III, Section 12, Penguin Press~~]//Rank
All of which brings me to the debt problem. What makes this issue particularly
the United States, would be a good investment in the country's future.

Declining US economic leadership risks global nuclear conflict

Haass 13 – President of the Council on Foreign Relations, former director of policy planning for the Department of State, master's and Ph.D. from Oxford Univeristy (Richard N, "The World Without America", Project Syndicate, 4/30/13, https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/repairing-the-roots-of-american-power-by-richard-n—haass)//JSL
But, like most temptations, the urge to gloat at America's imperfections and struggles
just for Americans, but for the vast majority of the planet's inhabitants.

Reducing inequity in K-12 education unlocks 70 trillion in long-term growth and will eliminate the US debt crisis

Edley et. Cuéllar 13 ~~[Christopher Edley, Jr. and Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar- part of the The Equity and Excellence Commission (the Commission) which is a federal advisory committee chartered by Congress, operating under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA); 5 U.S.C., App.2. , For Each and Every Child, February 2, 2013, https://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/eec/equity-excellence-commission-report.pdf~~] Valiaveedu
While some young Americans—most of them white and affluent— are getting a
of global competition—this practice is not only unjust but also unwise

Educational inequality is the vital internal link – no other action will have as large of an effect. Robust studies confirm the economic benefits of the plan

Lynch 15 ~~[Robert G. Lynch, Ph.D., State University of New York at Stony Brook, Professor of Economics at Washington College, January 2015, "The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Improving U.S. Educational Outcomes," Washington Center for Equitable Growth, http://equitablegrowth.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/10153405/0115-ach-gap-report.pdf~~]//Rank
This study addresses a key challenge confronting the United States—how to promote both
of the most advantaged children as well as temper reductions in income inequality.

Contention 3: Solvency

The plan substantially reduces inequality in school financing – both funding and regulations are key

Robinson, 16 - * Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "No QUICK Fix FOR EQUITY AND EXCELLENCE: THE VIRTUES OF INCREMENTAL SHIFTS IN EDUCATION FEDERALISM" 27 Stan. L. & Pol'y Rev. 201 2016, Hein Online)
Federal funding through ESEA could help states address a substantial component of state funding shortfalls
role be enacted as standalone conditions for receipt of any federal education funds.

The plan incrementally scales up Title I conditions and funding – anything short of this fails

Black, 17 - Professor of Law, University of South Carolina School of Law (Derek, "Abandoning the Federal Role in Education: The Every Student Succeeds Act", 102 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW ~~[Vol. 105:101, SSRN)
Congress can then realign the Elementary and Secondary Education Act with its historic mission of
for states to comply with the equity provisions outlined in the following sections.

Only federal intervention can address the scale of inequality – states lack capacity and resources, and their funding mechanisms are regressive and magnify inequality

Robinson, 12 - Professor of Law, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "The Past, Present, and Future of Equal Educational Opportunity: A Call for a New Theory of Education Federalism" The University of Chicago Law Review ~~[79:429, https://lawreview.uchicago.edu/sites/lawreview.uchicago.edu/files/14%20Robinson%20BKR.pdf)//DH
Before examining why the federal government should lead the nation's efforts to achieve equal educational
of government that is the most efficient and effective at accomplishing it.91

Federal action is key – bully pulpit, research, dissemination, leadership

Robinson, 16 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "FISHER'S CAUTIONARY TALE AND THE URGENT NEED FOR EQUAL ACCESS TO AN EXCELLENT EDUCATION" 130 Harv. L. Rev. 185, November, lexis)
The federal government must establish equal access to an excellent education as an urgent national
that legislative reform consistent with my proposal is unlikely in the near term.

Federal leadership is key – overcomes local resistance to reform more effectively than the states

Robinson, 15 - Professor, University of Richmond School of Law (Kimberly, "Disrupting Education Federalism" WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW ~~[VOL. 92:959, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e3c/a1792fa3482b209ae0ba85ed07a05d697f74.pdf
By enacting federal legislation and initiatives that embrace each of the elements discussed above,
establish a much closer and more effective marriage between federal influence and responsibility.