1AC CTE – BFHHR BD



State Budgets Advantage



State pension crisis is happening and will collapse the economy

Garret 6/9 (Olivier Garret, founding Partner and CEO of Mauldin Economics and Garret/Galland Research, 6-9-2017, "The Disturbing Trend That Will End in a Full-Fledged Pension Crisis," Forbes, https://www.forbes.com/sites/oliviergarret/2017/06/09/the-disturbing-trend-that-will-end-in-a-full-fledged-pension-crisis/~~#2474218b6620, Accessed: 7-14-2017 /Kent Denver-NK)
Some experts think it will be the trigger for the next financial collapse. Others
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yields, corporate pensions are struggling to meet their ever-increasing obligations.


The impact is diversionary war

Foster 12/19 ~~[Dennis M., professor of international studies and political science at the Virginia Military Institute, 12/19/16, "Would President Trump go to war to divert attention from problems at home?," http://inhomelandsecurity.com/would-president-trump-go-to-war-to-divert-attention-from-problems-at-home~~]
If the U.S. economy tanks, should we expect Donald Trump to
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ramifications of an economic downturn with a President Trump in the White House.


Federal CTE funding critical to avoid impending budget crisis and stimulate economic growth

CCD 17, ~~[Published by the American Association of Community Colleges, 6-23-2017, "Governors support CTE, job-training funding – Community College Daily," Community College Daily, http://www.ccdaily.com/2017/05/governors-support-cte-job-training-funding/~~]
The National Governors Association (NGA) doesn't often wade into debates over federal appropriations
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to ensure students are prepared for a 21st century economy," NGA said.


CTE stimulates economic growth through a staggering multiplier effect and rescues state budgets

Ogul 17 – writer for Orlando Sentinel (David, "How to improve a state economy through technical education", 2/17/17, Orlando Sentinel, http://www.orlandosentinel.com/brandpublishing/forstudentsnotprofit/os-how-to-improve-a-state-economy-20170217-story.html//GHS-AK)
For every dollar Wisconsin taxpayers invest in their technical college system, they get back
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. "We have been very fortunate and very pleased with their performance."


States increasing funding on their own would run afoul of balanced-budget requirements and further downgrade their creditworthiness —- only increasing federal block grant spending can solve fiscal shortfalls

Gamage 10 ~~[David Gamage, Assistant Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall), "Preventing State Budget Crises: Managing the Fiscal Volatility Problem," California Law Review, 98 Calif. L. Rev. 749, June, 2010, lexis~~]
Politicians generally benefit both from cutting taxes and from increasing spending on popular programs.
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, thereby reducing its potential to provide countercyclical support.
4:14


Stem Advantage



The US is falling behind in STEM education – revitalizing it is key to science diplomacy

Hajjar et al 15 (David P. Hajjar - nonresident senior fellow in the Center for Middle East Policy at Brookings, and is dean emeritus and distinguished professor of pathology and biochemistry at Weill Cornell Medicine at Cornell University. He has had 35 years of experience as a medical educator and researcher, having published widely on heart disease. Based on his experience as a Fulbright scholar, Harvard-Kennedy senior fellow on science policy and diplomacy, and as a Jefferson Science fellow in the U.S. State Department as a foreign affairs officer, his current research has now focused on educational science policy issues as they relate to human health and disease; Joshua Richardson - Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences; Kimberly Coleman - "Role for Diplomacy in Advancing Global Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Policies in the Twenty-First Century" - Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations – Summer 2015 - http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/whith16&div=29&id=&page=)/TK
The most daunting challenges that governments face are technologically demanding and global in scope:
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ensuring safer food and water supplies, and improving national defense.
Science


The plan solves - CTE is key to STEM education

Wolfe 6/26/17 (Alexis Wolfe - science policy analyst and writer for FYI and is currently working on expanding FYI's multimedia portfolio. Prior to joining AIP, she was an Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Fellow and NOAA Sea Grant Knauss Marine Policy Fellow at the U.S. Department of Energy, focusing on science communication – "Career and Technical Education Emerging as Vehicle for STEM in Trump Era" – 6/26/17 - https://www.aip.org/fyi/2017/career-and-technical-education-emerging-vehicle-stem-trump-era)/TK
Experiential, work-based career and technical education programs are receiving attention from policymakers
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community college students with internship positions at one of 15 national energy laboratories.


Science diplomacy is key to solve multiple global threats – climate change, cyber security, trade, health, and great power relations

Nichols 15 (Rodney W. Nichols - President and CEO Emeritus of the New York Academy of Sciences and former Executive Vice President of the Rockefeller University – "Why Diplomacy and Science Need Each Other" – 6/25/15 - https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2015-06-25/hardly-academic)/TK
At U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry's side when he negotiated a
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frontier research in fields such as astrophysics, all drawing on Indian talent.


STEM education is key to resolve climate change

McCright et al 13 (Aaron M. McCright - Professor of Sociology in Lyman Briggs College and the Department of Sociology at Michigan State University; Brian O'Shea - associate professor at Michigan State University, with a joint appointment in The Department of Computational Mathematics, Science and Engineering, the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory; Ryan Sweeder - member of Michigan State University's CREATE for STEM Institute, Ph.D. at the University of Michigan in Inorganic Chemistry and Chemistry Education, Associate Professor Lyman Briggs College -Michigan State University; Gerard R Urquhart - tropical ecologist and an assistant professor of biology at Michigan State University; Aklilu Zeleke - received his Ph.D. from Temple University in 1997 and joined the faculty at Alma College where he rose through the ranks to become an Associate Professor at MSU – "Promoting Interdisciplinarity Through Climate Change Education" – 7/14/13 - https://msu.edu/~~urquhart/professional/Nature-Climate-Change-McCright-2013.pdf)/TK
Climate change is a complex scientific and social problem. Effectively dealing with it presents
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address a real world problem that has wide-ranging societal implications.


Warming risks extinction

Torres 2016 -Director of the X-Risks Institute

Phil and Peter Boghossian ~~[prof of philosophy @ Portland State~~], "The Looming Extinction of Humankind, Explained," Aug 18, motherboard.vice.com/en_au/read/armageddon-comma-explained
*Rees – Sir Martin Rees, co-founder of the Centre for the
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technology, and the growth of religious extremism worldwide.
6:01


Workers advantage



Severe food shortages are coming now – they will ensure multiple paths to extinction – and a lack of academic interest increases the odds

Heneghan 15 ~~[Carolyn, freelance writer with experience in food and agriculture systems around the world, "Where food crises and global conflict could collide" Fooddive 1/22/15, http://www.fooddive.com/news/where-food-crises-and-global-conflict-could-collide/350837 //GK~~]
World War III is unimaginable for many, but some experts believe that not only
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find ways to solve the problem before it becomes something they cannot control.


US agriculture ships internationally – that's key to global food security

Edmark 15 ~~[Dave, U of A System Division of Agriculture, "Food security vital for national interests, world markets," Cattle News Network 10/23/15, http://www.cattlenetwork.com/news/food- security-vital- national-interests- world-markets //GK~~]
Improving global food security should be a U.S. priority because it is
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companies spending $8 billion to build infrastructure and supply chains in Africa.


The need for skilled agriculture workers will continue to grow – improving CTE is critical to ensure a sufficient amount of graduates

Willis 17 ~~[Victoria, masters in agricultural education from Clemson University, "Nurturing our Established Roots: The Smith-Hughes Act as a Model for Agricultural Education Career Preparation" The Agricultural Education Magazine Vol 89 Issue 4, January 2017, pg 27 //GK~~]
Considering retirement rates, the need to supply the STEM pipeline, and the worlds'
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take on the challenges of the future for the betterment of our society.


CTE ensures agricultural literacy, improves student perception of agricultural careers, and increases enrollment in urban schools – that causes an influx of new workers to sustain the agricultural sector

Trexler 16 ~~[Tiffany, masters of science in agricultural education from California State University, Chico, "THE ADDITION OF AN AGRICULTURE MECHANICS PATHWAY TO BEAR CREEK HIGH SCHOOL" CSU Chico spring 2016, pgs 12-15 //GK~~]
One of the reasons there is a need to expand CTE in general, but
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mechanics pathway was researched and planned, with the intent of rapid adoption.


Plan/solvency



The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding of secondary career and technical education, including increasing formula grants distributed to states, establishing of a CTE Pathways Trust Fund, and expanding Social Innovation Financing.



The plan galvanizes private sector support for secondary CTE education through social innovation financing and competitive grants

Hasak 16 ~~[Jonathan Hasak is a Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a former Teach for America corps member who taught in the Oakland Unified School District, "A summer surprise: the case for CTE reform," 7/1/16, http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/286111-a-summer-surprise-the-case-for-cte-reform~~]
In less than 16 days, the United States Congress will adjourn for their summer
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remaining days in session to reauthorize the Perkins Career and Technical Education Act.


Linking high schools to CTE programs administered by the private sector ensures the development of a workforce that overcomes looming productivity and skills gaps

Jackson and Hasak 14 ~~[John H. Jackson is the president and CEO of the Schott Foundation for Public Education, held leadership positions at the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and has served as an adjunct professor of Race, Gender, and Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute, and Jonathan Hasak is a recent graduate of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Manager of Public Policy and Government Affairs at Year Up, "Look Beyond The Label: Reframing, Reimagining, and Reinvesting in CTE," American Educator, Fall 2014, https://www.aft.org/ae/fall2014/jackson_hasak~~]
2. Address the Student-Readiness and Teaching-Training Gaps
Despite being
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greater efficiency, increased student choice, and wider access to education.18


Social innovation financing reduces runaway spending and encourages competition

Costa 11 ~~[Kristina Costa, Special Assistant at the Center for American Progress. 10-19-2011 "Financing Tools for Social Innovation," Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/general/news/2011/10/19/10435/innovation-for-the-public-good-financing-tools-for-social-innovation/~~] /adres
Last week we examined why strong leadership is essential to public-sector innovation.
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what makes an agency's culture most able to innovate.
1:32


Political nihilism spreads beyond the classroom – it empowers violent conservatives like Trump – forsaking compromise is a dangerous, academic luxury

Claudio, 16 —- assistant professor of development studies and southeast Asian studies at the Ateneo de Manila University (7/1/2016, Lisandro, "Intellectuals have ushered the world into a dangerous age of political nihilism," qz.com/721914/intellectuals-have-ushered-the-world-into-a-dangerous-age-of-political-nihilism/)
On the surface, it would seem that intellectuals have nothing to do with the
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us have to figure out what to do with the one we have.


Focus on interim gains is valuable and culminates in revolutionary politics – rejection of that state leads to inevitable failure

Connolly 13 – Professor of Political Science @ JHU
(William, "The Fragility of Things," p. 36-42)
A philosophy attending to the acceleration, expansion, irrationalities, interdependencies, and fragilities
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state actions, and large-scale, cross-state citizen actions.