Contention 1 is Disease:
Vaccine preventable diseases are on the rise – without action, a profusion of children will die.
Vitolo-Haddad 15 --- is the Director of Debate at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a doctoral student in the Communication Arts department, MA in communication from Wake Forest in 2016, BS in Molecular Biology in 2014, University of Central Florida,. (CV, “KAIROTIC ECLIPSES IN VACCINE LEGISLATION: HOW OVERLAPPING SPHERES OF DISCOURSE CREATE IDEAL PUBLIC POLICY CLIMATES,” December 2015,
Since the introduction of the smallpox vaccine
illness are often diagnosed as general infections and treated with antibiotics.
Mandatory Vaccinations Needed Now:
First, Scientists and studies prove --- there’s no negative effects
ERWIN CHEMERISKY AND MICHELE GOODWIN 4/19/2016 --- Erwin Chemerinsky is the founding Dean and Distinguished Professor of Law, and Raymond Pryke Professor of First Amendment Law, at University of California, Irvine School of Law, with a joint appointment in Political Science. Harvard Law School, J.D. Northwestern University, B.S Prior to assuming this position in 2008, he was the Alston and Bird Professor of Law and Political Science at Duke University from 2004-2008, and before that was a professor at the University of Southern California Law School from 1983-2004, including as the Sydney M. Irmas Professor of Public Interest Law, Legal Ethics, and Political Science. He also has taught at DePaul College of Law and UCLA Law School. Michele Goodwin is the Everett Fraser Professor in Law at the University of Minnesota. She holds joint appointments at the University of Minnesota Medical School and the University of Minnesota School of Public Health. (“COMPULSORY VACCINATION LAWS ARE CONSTITUTIONAL”, Erwin Chemerisky and Michele Goodwin, April 19, 2016, Proquest 599-614)chiragjain
vaccination law to make sure that every child, and every person, is vaccinated unless there is a medical reason not to do so.
Second, the amount of parents refusing to vaccinate their children is rising – triggers reintroduction of vaccine-curable diseases
Horton 16 -- Dr. Kathryn J. Horton is a senior internal medicine resident at the University of Washington in Seattle and is currently working in the ABC News Medical Unit. Dr. Shailja Mehta, a resident in the ABC News Medical Unit, also contributed to this report. [8/29/16,
Why Parents Aren't Vaccinating Their Kids, According to New Study,] MP
The belief that vaccines cause autism –
school and work environment."The impact is two-fold
Disease kills kids – aff solves squo barriers
Belisle 15 -- director of Child Health Quality Improvement at Maine Quality Counts, a nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the quality of healthcare. She also serves on the board of the Maine Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics and was recognized as the Maine CDC Childhood Immunization Champion in 2014 [Amy, Children continue to die from vaccine-preventable diseases. We can stop that,] MP
-Information Barrier
As a pediatrician, I have been profoundly
fear that it breeds.
Causes mass illness, death, and suffering, disproportionately impacting the most vulnerable---defense doesn’t apply
Arturo Casadevall 12, M.D., Ph.D. in Biochemistry from New York University, Leo and Julia Forchheimer Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, former editor of the ASM journal Infection and Immunity, “The future of biological warfare,” Microbial Biotechnology Volume 5, Issue 5, pages 584–587, September 2012,
In considering the importance of biological
capacity for pathogenicity as a consequence of natural
Flu vaccines are uniquely key for Native Americans and Alaskan Natives
CDC 15 --- center for disease control (11/23/15, “American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu,”
Vaccination against the flu is especially
and Indian Country healthy by getting vaccinated against the flu.
Disease disproportionately affects people of color due to antivaxxers – Somali measles crisis in Minnesota proves
Sun 17 -- Columbia University - Graduate School of Journalism [Anti-vaccine activists spark a state’s worst measles outbreak in decades,, May 5, 2017] MP
The young mother started getting advice early on
on a breathing machine for three weeks.

2 Poverty
Contention 2 is Poverty
Lack of immunization and poverty is tautological –providing mass vaccinations is key to break the cycle and pull out of human poverty
Fairbank et al. 6 --- an applied research economist, budget/cost analyst and policy advisor concerning the financing of the delivering of medical and health services in diverse settings and conditions, written for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Alan, “Poverty Reduction and Immunizations,” March 15, 2006,
      • HIPC = Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
Immunizations can be a key and cost-effective element
the children in the poorest households.
Absent the aff, outbreaks are inevitable- causes economic chaos for impoverished families who can’t afford to miss work to care for sick children
Offit 17 -- Paul A. Offit is a professor of pediatrics at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the author of Deadly Choices: How the Anti-Vaccine Movement Threatens Us All (Basic Books, 2011). [6/24/17; What Makes Trumpcare So Dangerous for Kids,] MP
Let’s presume that Congress eventually
disabled, hospitalized, and killed our children.
Vaccinations reap huge social benefits in school children – save trillions of dollars in consumer spending, meaning families have to spend less to stay healthier
Philipson et al. 17 Tomas J. Philipson, PhD; Julia Thornton Snider, PhD; Ayman Chit, PhD; Sarah Green, BA; Philip Hosbach, BA; Taylor Tinkham Schwartz, MPH; Yanyu Wu, PhD; and Wade M. Aubry, MD, January 2017, “The Social Value of Childhood Vaccination in
the United States”, DJ
The innovation of childhood vaccines has resulted in a
for society, and how that value is distributed across patients and manufacturers.
Disease destroy the quality of life
Hotez 10 (Peter J. Hotez, scientist, pediatrician, and leading advocate and expert in the fields of global health, vaccinology, and neglected tropical disease control. He serves as founding dean of the Baylor College of Medicine National School of Tropical Medicine, chief of the new Section of Tropical Medicine in the BCM Department of Pediatrics and holds the Texas Children’s Hospital Endowed Chair in Tropical Pediatrics. He is also President of the Sabin Vaccine Institute, headquartered in Washington, DC; and leads the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development. Recently, he was named the Fellow in Disease and Poverty at Baker Institute for Public Policy at the Rice University,, “Nuclear Weapons and Neglected Disease: The ‘Ten-Thousand-to-One Gap’”, April 27 2010)
Despite this massive expenditure, each of the 11 nuclear
leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, and trachoma.
Aff key – otherwise impoverished children slip through the cracks
Murphy 16 --- covers K-12 education in the Rochester area, encompassing public, private and parochial schools. He’s worked at the Democrat and Chronicle since 2012 and before that was a reporter for The Citizen in Auburn. attended the University of Chicago and the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University. (Justin, 11/25/16, “Study: Poor children most likely to lack vaccinations,”
While it is common to hear of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children for
pediatrician and thus can fall through the cracks. The study was conducted by researchers Jessica Nadeau, Louise-Anne McNutt and Jana Shaw.

Plan Text
Plan: The United States federal government should regulate elementary and secondary education by implementing a law that requires mandatory vaccination programs for elementary and secondary schools according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices schedule with stringent exemption standards.
3 Solvency
Contention 3 is Solvency:
Federal government is key and solves – the federal government creates uniform standards, provides adequate incentive to follow the policy, and has expertise and financial and scientific resources
Tohanczyn 16 --- Katherine is an associate in the Starfield Smith’s Fort Washington office. She concentrates her practice on commercial financing, real estate and corporate law with a focus on commercial lending and government guaranteed lending. (“ Katherine D., “WHO SHOULD CALL THE SHOTS? PROPOSING FEDERAL OVERSIGHT OF MANDATORY CHILDHOOD VACCINATIONS,” winter edition of the Philadelphia Lawyer 2016,
allow a philosophical exemption under a federal program

Federal vaccine policy is uniquely important NOW --- state’s can’t provide for it
KATIE KIM AND LISA CAPITANNI 6/21/17 --- NBC Chicago Reporter for Budget Policy (“Thousands of Kids At Risk of Not Getting Vaccines”, Katie Kim and Lisa Capitanni, June 21, 2017,
Thousands of children in Illinois are at risk of not getting their
negotiate a state budget before the June 30 fiscal year deadline.
Vaccination can saves millions of children’s lives every year – legislative action key
Vitolo-Haddad 15 CV Vitolo is the Director of Debate at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a doctoral student in the Communication Arts department, December 2015, “KAIROTIC ECLIPSES IN VACCINE LEGISLATION: HOW OVERLAPPING SPHERES OF DISCOURSE CREATE IDEAL PUBLIC POLICY CLIMATES”, DJ
If these cases seem isolated, consider this: in the year Callie Van
list of mandatory childhood vaccines and eliminating so-called “philosophical exemptions.”

School sites with federal intervention in particular are key – empirically proven
Lindley et al 7 -- a National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; bSan Francisco Unified School District, San Francisco, California; c Section of Adolescent Medicine and Sports Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; dSchool of Nursing, University of Missouri, Kansas City, Missouri; e Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing, Michigan; f American School Health Association, Kent, Ohio [Megan C. Lindley, MPHa, Lynda Boyer-Chu, BSN, MPHb, Daniel B. Fishbein, MDa, Maureen Kolasa, RN, MPHa, Amy B. Middleman, MD, MPH, MSEdc , Thad Wilson, APRN, PhDd, JoEllen Wolicki, RN, BSNe, Susan Wooley, PhD, CHESf , for the Working Group on the Role of Schools in Delivery of Adolescent Vaccinations, August 22, 2007, The Role of Schools in Strengthening Delivery of New Adolescent Vaccinations] MP
Vaccination in schools was first widely
because many of the diseases they prevent have long incubation periods.
The aff is key now
Hoyer and Reilly 15– database team; investigative reporter and data specialist [Megan Hoyer and Steve Reilly;, Low vaccination rates at schools put students at risk] MP
Vaccination data obtained by USA TODAY
consider it a basic failure of public health."
Doctors won’t fake medical exemptions – after Bob Sears, no one will risk their medical license – enforcement will crack down
Gelfand 16 --- writes on science, culture, and politics for City Watch (Bob, 9/12/16, “A Potentially Devastating Blow to the Anti-Vaccination Movement,”
GELFAND’S WORLD--In a recent column
the way that the medical marijuana mills have been run.
Reject big-stick impacts which push suffering bodies to the back of the triage- give a new sense of urgency to these bodies as a radical critique of the waiting politics of the negative which serve to make suffering infinite by continually delaying the aff
Elizabeth Olson 2015 (Associate Professor of Geography and Global Studies at UNC-Chapel Hill, Geography and ethics I: Waiting and urgency, Progress in Human Geography, DOI: 10.1177/0309132515595758) 6/26/17
Though toileting might be thought of as a special case of bodily urgency,
fertile ground for radical critique, a truly fierce urgency for now.
Disregard appeals to specific scenarios – the conjunction fallacy means each chain of their disad renders itself less probable.
Yudkowsky ‘8 (Eliezer; 7/8/8; Cofounder of Machine Intelligence Research Institute, research fellow at MIRI, citing several psychological studies; Machine Intelligence Research Institute, “Cognitive Biases Potentially Affecting Judgment of Global Risks,”, p. 7-8)
The conjunction fallacy similarly applies to futurological forecasts.
make for an awkward and unpoetic-sounding prophecy.
Their nuclear rhetoric is problematic – causes a numbing effect and ignores history
Kato 93 --- Department of Political Science, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii (Masahide, SUMMER 1993, “Nuclear Globalismi Traversing Rockets, Satellites, and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze,”
The Configuration of Extinction Nuclear criticism finds the likelihood of
let us approach the core of the ideology of globalism cum technosubjectivity manifested in nuclear criticism.