Cyborg 1ac

In Western thought, nature is constructed in opposition to the queer and the feminine—difference is marked as unnatural as a method of ostracizing groups of people; ecofeminist studies decenter the human to reject this marginalization
Merrick, 8 - PhD History (UWA), Senior lecturer at Curtin University (Helen, “Queering nature: close encounters with the alien in feminist science fiction,” 2008 Queer Universes: Sexualities in Science Fiction http://espace.library.curtin.edu.au/R?func=dbin-jump-full&local_base=gen01-era02&object_id=20732)//gingE
*We don’t endorse gendered/ableist language
One of the many paradoxes inherent
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human’ are brought to the fore, including how both are variously sexualized.

That mindset causes omnicide

Sedgwick, 8 (Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, 2008 The Epistemology of the Closet)//gingE
From at least the biblical story of Sodom and Gomorrah, scenarios of same-
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thought between minority potentials and universalizing ones be opened and opened and opened?

Specifically, status quo orientation towards the ocean is one that posits it as a subject to be examined and dominated instead of something that is living

Weinstone, ‘94 (Ann “Resisting Monsters: Notes on "Solaris"” Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 173-190 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4240332) //GY
Solaris begins, like all our stories of rebelling robots, cyborgs, and marginalized
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attempts at colonization and a subject which can produce its own rough representations.

Our subjugation of nature has led to our commodification and oppression of women

Dreese, ’99 - an author and Associate Professor of English at Northern Kentucky University (Donelle N. “The Terrestrial and Aquatic Intelligence of Linda Hogan” pgs. 19-21 http://www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.umich.edu/stable/20736931?seq=14&Search=yes&searchText=ecofeminism&searchText=AND&searchText=ocean&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Docean%2BAND%2Becofeminism%26amp%3Bprq%3D%2522ocean%2Bexploration%2522%2BAND%2Bfeminism%26amp%3Bhp%3D25%26amp%3Bacc%3Don%26amp%3Bwc%3Don%26amp%3Bfc%3Doff%26amp%3Bso%3Drel&prevSearch=&resultsServiceName=null) //GY
While viewing aspects of the environment with spiritual reverence as nothing less than kin and
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well being. If one is not safe, none of us are.

Within the novel Solaris, the character Rheya is a figure of the ocean that represents how masculinity is imposed upon the ocean as a method of colonization. Our orientation towards the ocean is one that is dictated by rigid binaries

Weinstone, ‘94 (Ann “Resisting Monsters: Notes on "Solaris"” Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 173-190 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4240332) //GY
3. Rheya. Rheya is the Phi creature the Ocean creates from Kelvin’s subconscious
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as a need to rely on an ‘undisputed origin’” (94).

Reflection on Solaris allows cyborganization, a proximal logic that avoids classification

Tirado et al, ’99 (Francisco Javier Tirado, José Manuel Alcaraz and Miquel DomèNech “A Change of Episteme for Organizations: A Lesson from Solaris” http://org.sagepub.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/content/6/4/673.full.pdf) GY
The novel explains the story of a planet discovered long ago (Solaris) which
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contrast to this, are based on a mechanism of codification-simulation.

Cyborgs represent the queer other – we subjugate these “monsters” to reinforce dominant white male heterosexual narratives
Weinstone, ‘94 (Ann “Resisting Monsters: Notes on "Solaris"” Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 173-190 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4240332)
GY
Our monsters have always resisted us, and until recently, resistance was futile.
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look at a contemporary resisting monster: Rheya in Stanislaw Lem's novel Solaris.

Thus we resolve to explore the ocean from the figure of the cyborg


The cyborg solves binaries and becomes a political tool for liberation

Miyake, 4 – PhD in Gender and Woman’s studies (Esperanza, Journal of International Women's Studies March 2004 “My, is that Cyborg a little bit Queer?”)//gingE
The human/animal boundary breakdown is a power(ful) strategy that the
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cyborgs no longer need to come ‘out’ for they are already there.

A singular feminist identity is a tool of masculinity that ultimately allows the subordination of women, which also allows for environmental exploitation. The figure of the cyborg is one that rejects the contrived “unity” of the feminist subject

Haraway, 91 - Distinguished Professor Emerita in the History of Consciousness Department at the University of California (Donna, “A Cyborg Manifesto Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century,” in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York; Routledge, 1991), pp 149-181 http://www.egs.edu/faculty/donna-haraway/articles/donna-haraway-a-cyborg-manifesto/)//gingE
Sandoval's argument has to be seen as one potent formulation for feminists out of the
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shroud for the day after the apocalypse that so prophetically ends salvation history.

Rheya represents the subjugated woman – rejections of oversimplifications are key

Weinstone, ‘94 (Ann “Resisting Monsters: Notes on "Solaris"” Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 173-190 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4240332) //GY
3.2. Human/non-human/biological entity/machine.
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the processes of naming, fixing, and defining have been shut down.

Science fiction changes our orientation towards nature as something to be mastered and instead integrates us into the web of the world

Donawerth, 90 - Professor at the University of Maryland(Jane Donawerth, “Utopian Science: Contemporary Feminist Science Theory and Science Fiction,” pp. 548-550, 1990)//gingE
Feminist science theorists have shown that male scientists from the seventeenth century on have conceived
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, so, a "labor of love" according to Rose.22

Self examination and internal questioning is a prerequisite to deconstructing patriarchy

Helford, ‘92 (Elyce Rae, Science Fiction Studies is a refereed scholarly journal devoted to the study of the genre of science fiction “"We Are Only Seeking Man": Gender, Psychoanalysis, and Stanislaw Lem's "Solaris"” Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2 http://www.jstor.org.proxy.lib.umich.edu/stable/pdfplus/4240149.pdf?acceptTC=true) //GY
We think of ourselves as the Knights of Holy Contact. This is another lie
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a compelling psychoanalytic study of the human mind and the construction of gender.




Aquaculture 1ac




PLAN




The United States federal government should substantially increase its regulatory and financial promotion of its sustainable aquaculture development of the Earth’s oceans.




SUSTAINABILITY




Global overfishing is real


Sumaila 12 – professor and director of the Fisheries Centre at the University of B.C (Rashid, “Declining fisheries will affect us all soon enough”, Feb 1st, LexisNexis) //J.N.E

The sad story of Newfoundland's cod industry is well known: When the region's once

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food security will require all of us to work together toward common goals.



It collapses fisheries globally


Pauly 9 --- professor at the Fisheries Centre of the University of British Columbia (9/28/2009, Daniel, “Aquacalypse Now,” http://www.newrepublic.com/article/environment-energy/aquacalypse-now, JMP)

The jig, however, is nearly up. In 1950, the newly constituted

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seeing now may be only the first scene in a watery horror show.



Overfishing is destroying the ocean


Oceana 7 - adapted from a briefing given on May 24, 2007 at the World Trade Organization by Andrew Sharpless, Chief Executive Officer of Oceana and Dr. Rashid Sumaila, Director of the Fisheries Economics Research Unit at the University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre (“STATE OF THE WORLD’S FISHERIES”, http://oceana.org/sites/default/files/o/fileadmin/oceana/uploads/dirty_fishing/Reports/SOWF_document_070907.pdf) //J.N.E

What Will Be the Future of the Oceans? The oceans contain a vast diversity

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, the stability of marine ecosystems, and water quality all decrease exponentially.



Ocean is key to human survival


Dingle 11 – Sarah Dingle is a reporter for ABC Radio Current Affairs. (“Ocean heading for mass extinction, scientists warn”, ABC News, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-06-21/ocean-heading-for-mass-extinction-scientists-warn/2766340, June 21, 2011, Quay)

Scientists are warning of a potential marine massacre with a mass extinction of sea life

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will be presented at the United Nations headquarters in New York this week.



Specifically, it destroys regional diversities – interdependence


Science Daily 14 – leading publishers of science news – citing Flordia State University research (“Snowball effect of overfishing highlighted”, Jan 7th, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140107163737.htm) //J.N.E

Florida State University researchers have spearheaded a major review of fisheries research that examines the

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of Maine, the Centre de Recherche Halieutique Méditerranéenne et Tropicale in France.



Biodiversity loss leads to extinction.

Coyne, Hoekstra '07(Jerry, professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution at the University of Chicago, Hopi, Associate Professor in the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University, both are with The New Republic, “The Greatest Dying", September 24th, 2007, http://www.truthout.org/article/jerry-coyne-and-hopi-e-hoekstra-the-greatest-dying)

But it isn't just the destruction of the rainforests that should trouble us. Healthy

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just another Great Dying, but perhaps the greatest dying of them all.



Overfishing destroys global food production – aquaculture solves


Strasser 14 --- Senior Editor of ThinkProgress (4/21/2014, Annie-Rose, “The New, Innovative And More Efficient Way Of Feeding People,” http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2014/04/21/3422486/big-ag-takes-to-the-ocean/, JMP)



Don Kent, President of the Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute, was standing in the seafood aisle of a Whole Foods in the affluent San Diego neighborhood of La Jolla recently when he took out his phone and snapped a photo of a fresh-looking branzino. “Branzino is European sea bass,” Kent explained. “It’s grown in the Mediterranean. And it’s flown 6,900 miles from Greece to here and then it’s put on ice in La Jolla.” Kent, whose organization studies the intersection of nature and human activity and offers solutions on how the two can co-exist, is one of the people who believes there’s a different way to approach how we get our protein here in theUnited States. He insists that there’s a new, innovative, and more efficient method of feeding people — not just in La Jolla, but all over the world. Aquaculture. Or, as it’s known to most people, fish farming. “We spend 130 million dollars a year on air freight for the 300,000 metric tons of salmon that get flown into the U.S. from Chile. Think of the carbon footprint associated with that,” he says. “There’s absolutely no reason why that brazino shouldn’t be a white sea bass grown three miles off the coast. And then imagine the carbon footprint that’s saved in doing that.” What, exactly, is aquaculture? The basic idea is that you’re farming aquatic life. The specifics, however, vary quite a bit. In the case of fish, eggs are fostered into small fish at a hatchery, raised for food, and farmed whenever they’re needed. The fish can be raised in tanks or in net pens, in fresh water, off the coast, or out in the open ocean. And fish are just one kind of aquaculture; a similar process is utilized to farm shellfish — like mussels or oysters — and for seaweeds. Aquaculture right now is in an age of innovation. The advent of indoor tank farming is one promising way fish farming could grow. Another would be going out into the open ocean and dropping fish in large, globe-shaped aquapods down below the surface. “Open-ocean aquaculture is one of the emerging frontiers,” says Michael Rubino, Director of the Aquaculture Office at theNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “There’s not much of it yet but we have crowded coastlines, we have coastlines that have a lot of new trees and they’re shallow, or they’re multiple uses, so some people think that going further offshore, you avoid those multiple use conflicts and get a more stable environment.” Attempts to take aquaculture offshore include building farms off of decommissioned oil rigs. Farmers also hope it can help them to farm in rougher waters where weather events like hurricanes might get in the way. Some aquaculture groups even hope that there is a way to fuse offshore farms with renewable energy projects. Spend just a few minutes reading news about agriculture and climate change these days, and you’ll understand what’s driving people to consider scaling up aquaculture: The latest report from the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change tells us we’re headed toward a “breakdown of food systems linked to warming, drought, flooding, and precipitation variability and extremes.” Studies come out every week, practically, that say drought threatens our supply of key grains like wheat, corn, and rice. The warming globe is even slowing down cows’ production of milk. And not only is our food on the fritz, but it’s causing a lot of the problems that seem to be leading to its own demise. Cows, a growing source of protein here in the United States, are major emitters of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Meat production is also a serious drain on other resources: A quarter pound of hamburger meat uses up 6.7 pounds of grains and 52.8 gallons of water. We’re paying a high price to get our protein, and all the while our population is growing at a breakneck speed. There are a lot of hungry mouths to feed. The United Nations has urged “a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products” altogether. But aquaculture might be a good stepping stone. “Overall, if we’re going to if we’re going to adequately nourish the increasing number of billions of people on this planet continue to consume the amount of seafood we consumeor put more apocalyptically, if we’re going to adequately nourish the increasing number of billions of people on this planet,” Michael Conathan, Director of Ocean Policy at the Center for American Progress, told ThinkProgress, “more and more protein is going to have to come from aquaculture.” Experts say there are myriad reasons why the world can and should shift toward getting more of its sustenance from aquaculture. For one thing, it can be much more efficient than the status quo. “The thing about aquaculture is that from a resource efficiency perspective it’s one of the most resource-efficient ways to produce protein in terms of the amount of food and the amount of space it takes,” says NOAA’s Rubino. “Far more than land animals. You’re not using fresh water [to grow crops to feed land animals], and the feed conversion of fish is roughly one to one — one pound of food for one pound of flesh — as opposed to pork or beef where it’s seven or ten to one … So from an environmental footprint perspective, it’s very efficient. You can also grow a lot of fish in a very small space. They don’t need a lot of space whether it’s a pond or a tank, as opposed to grazing land or all the corn or soybeans that it takes to feed animals.” As it stands now, 40 percent of the non-water surface of earth is used for agriculture. A whopping 30 percent of land that’s not covered in ice is being used not to feed us directly, but to feed the things that feed us, namely chickens, cows, and pigs. One of the effects of this is that agriculture is driving massive deforestation.



Aquaculture is guarantees long term food security – no other sources can increase production quickly


Hishamunda et al 9 - Fishery Planning Officer at the Fishery and Aquaculture Economics and Policy Division of the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department (Nathanael, Junning Cai – Assistant Professor at Central University of Finance and Economics, PingSun Leung – professor at College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, “Commercial aquaculture and economic growth, poverty alleviation and food security, FAO, http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0974e/i0974e.pdf, JZG)

Aquaculture’s contribution to food security The existing and potential contributions of aquaculture to food security

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and static fishery production make aquaculture an important supply source for fish products.



Food insecurity will collapse civilization


Brown, 9 --- founder of both the WorldWatch Institute and the Earth Policy Institute (May 2009, Lester R., Scientific American, “Could Food Shortages Bring Down Civilization?” Ebsco)

The biggest threat to global stability is the potential for food crises in poor countries

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states disintegrate, their fall will threaten the stability of global civilization itself.



The plan, based on the National Sustainable Offshore Aquaculture Act, is the best way to develop environmentally sustainable offshore aquaculture.


Lead agency k2 administaration/consistency

Noaa key – expertise in fisheries/oceans – scholarly consensus

Legally binding regulations solve – force accountability.

Johns, 13 --- J.

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our domestic economy, but not at the expense of a healthy ocean.



Plan gets developed globally --




A) US Credibility


Naylor, 6 --- Fellow at the Center for Environmental Science and Policy, Stanford University (Spring 2006, Rosamond L., “Environmental Safeguards for Open-Ocean Aquaculture,” http://issues.org/22-3/naylor/, JMP)

The need for national environmental standards Whether environmentalists like it or not, marine aquaculture

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enforceable environmental mandates.standards could help encourage better practices in other countries.



B) Investor confidence


Love 3(Graham, writer for the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resources Economics, October 2003, "Australian Aquaculture information requirements for investors", eReport, data.daff.gov.au/brs/data/warehouse/pe_abarebrs99000981/PC12573.pdf)//twontwon

Of particular interest from the point of view of changing investor perceptions of aquaculture were

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and too few large profitable ones that could be shown to potential investors.



IMPORTS




Current regulatory structure blocks offshore aquaculture --- underregulation, overregulation, and inevitable legal challenges

Johns, 13--- J.D. Candidate, USC Law 2013 (March 2013, Kristen L., Southern California Law Review, FARM FISHING HOLES: GAPS IN FEDERAL REGULATION OF OFFSHORE AQUACULTURE,” 86 S. Cal. L. Rev. 681, JMP)¶ III. DEFICIENCIES OF THE CURRENT REGULATORY SCHEME)

The current regime for regulating offshore aquaculture needs to be revised. There is no

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authority will allow opponents of the aquaculture industry to effectively challenge any project.



Reliance on seafood imports will wreck the domestic seafood industry which is key to the overall economy. The only suitable alternative is self-sufficient national production.

Corbin, 10 --- President of Aquaculture Planning & Advocacy LLC (May/ June 2010, John S., Marine Technology Society Journal, “Sustainable U.S. Marine Aquaculture Expansion, a Necessity,” http://www.ljhs.sandi.net/faculty/DJames/NOSB/Study Guides/Aquaculture MTS 44.3.pdfingentaconnect database, JMP)

WHY U.S. MARINE AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IS IMPORTANT¶ Seafood Consumption in America

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aquaculture to bolster the seafood industry to satisfy its many millions of customers.



The impact is global nuclear war

Freidberg & Schonfeld, 8 --- *Professor of Politics and IR at Princeton’s Woodrow Wilson School, AND **senior editor of Commentary and a visiting scholar at the Witherspoon Institute in Princeton (10/21/2008, Aaron and Gabriel, “The Dangers of a Diminished America”, Wall Street Journal, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122455074012352571.html?mod=googlenews_wsj)

With the global financial system in serious trouble, is America's geostrategic dominance likely to

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disastrous effects of disengagement and the stiff price tag of continued American leadership.



Plan ensures sustainable development of aquaculture --- resolves seafood trade deficit and rebuilds wild fish stocks


Regs k2 grow the industry

Companies are going to other countries -- uniqueness claim

Johns, 13 --- J.D. Candidate, USC Law 2013 (March

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aquaculture industry afloat, it must focus on revising its current regulatory regime.



The plan creates a sustainable model that trades off with wild fish stock


Smith 12 --- J.D. Harvard Law School, 2012 (4/19/2012, Turner, “Greening the Blue Revolution: How History Can Inform a Sustainable Aquaculture Movement,” http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/11938741/Smith_2012.pdf?sequence=1, JMP)

IV. The Benefits and Harms of Modern Aquaculture Before delving into an account of

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a “green” blue revolution and realize its full, impressive potential.