Contention 1 – NSA overreach

Executive Order 12333 authorizes foreign surveillance, but the NSA is using it to exploit loopholes to create backdoor access for wholly domestic communications

Arnbak and Goldberg 14- cybersecurity and information law research at the Institute for Information Law, LL.M degree from Leiden University, A Competitive Strategy and Game Theory degree from London School of Economics University of Amsterdam; Associate professor in the Computer Science Department at Boston University, phD from Princeton University, B.A.S.c from University of Toronto (Axel and Sharon, “Loopholes for Circumventing the Constitution: Warrantless Bulk Surveillance on Americans by Collecting the Network Traffic Abroad”, Working Paper, June 27, 2014)//TT
In Section 2 we ... are located on U.S. soil (e.g., from Harvard University to Boston University).

The perception that the NSA is using the XO 12333 back-door to circumvent section 702 is causing a global backlash against US tech companies and driving data localization

Eoyang, 14 - Mieke Eoyang is the Director of the National Security Program at Third Way, a center-left think tank. She previously served as Defense Policy Advisor to Senator Edward M. Kennedy, and a subcommittee staff director on the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, as well as as Chief of Staff to Rep. Anna Eshoo (D-Palo Alto) (“A Modest Proposal: FAA Exclusivity for Collection Involving U.S. Technology Companies” Lawfare, 11/24, http://www.lawfareblog.com/modest-proposal-faa-exclusivity-collection-involving-us-technology-companies)
Beyond 215 and ... requests are made.

The perception of surveillance overreach wrecks the US internet freedom agenda

Kehl, 14 – Policy Analyst at New America’s Open Technology Institute (Danielle, “Surveillance Costs: The NSA’s Impact on the Economy, Internet Freedom & Cybersecurity” July, https://www.newamerica.org/oti/surveillance-costs-the-nsas-impact-on-the-economy-internet-freedom-cybersecurity/)
The effects of ... free expression issues.

The US needs to draw a sharp distinction between domestic and national security surveillance to make the US Internet Freedom agenda credible – otherwise global internet fragmentation will result

Fontaine, 14 – President of the Center for a New American Security; was foreign policy advisor to Senator John McCain for more than five years; Worked at the State Department, the National Security Council and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee; was associate director for near Eastern affairs at the National Security Council; B.A. in International Relations from Tulan University (Richard, “Bringing Liberty Online; Reenergizing the Internet Freedom Agenda in a Post-Snowden Era”, Center for a New American Security, September 18, 2014, http://www.cnas.org/sites/default/files/publications-pdf/CNAS_BringingLibertyOnline_Fontaine.pdf)//TT
The 2013 revelations ... the Snowden disclosures.

Data localization will end internet freedom and cause global democratic rollbacks

Hill, 14 – Internet Policy at U.S. Department of Commerce (Jonah, “The Growth of Data Localization Post-Snowden: Analysis and Recommendations for U.S. Policymakers and Business Leaders”, The Hague Institute for Global Justice, Conference on the Future of Cyber Governance, 2014 , May 1, 2014, SSRN)//TT
Free Expression and ... development – are illusory.

Democracy as spread by the global internet is vital to the emergence of global publics – that’s the key to solving all existential impacts

Keane, 11 – Professor of Politics at the University of Sydney (John, “Democracy in the Age of Google, Facebook and WikiLeaks” http://sydney.edu.au/arts/downloads/news/ALR.pdf)
Communicative abundance enables ... secures or wrecks.

A free internet is vital to combating every existential threat

Eagleman, 10 - American neuroscientist and writer at Baylor College of Medicine, where he directs the Laboratory for Perception and Action and the Initiative on Neuroscience and Law (David, “Six ways the internet will save civilization” Wired, 9/10, http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2010/12/start/apocalypse-no)
Many great civilisations ... that saves us.

Data localization will destroy global economic growth

Chandler and Le, 15 - * Director, California International Law Center, Professor of Law and Martin Luther King, Jr. Hall Research Scholar, University of California, Davis; A.B., Harvard College; J.D., Yale Law School AND **Free Speech and Technology Fellow, California International Law Center; A.B., Yale College; J.D., University of California, Davis School of Law (Anupam and Uyen, “DATA NATIONALISM” 64 Emory L.J. 677, lexis)
Many governments believe ... these trends below.

That causes World War 3

James, 14 - Professor of history at Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School who specializes in European economic history (Harold, “Debate: Is 2014, like 1914, a prelude to world war?” 7/3, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/read-and-vote-is-2014-like-1914-a-prelude-to-world-war/article19325504/)
Some of the ... may be fatal.

Contention 2 - Technological Leadership

NSA surveillance is crushing U.S. cloud-computing – decks competitiveness and spills over to the entire tech sector

Donohue 15 – Professor of Law, Georgetown Law and Director, Center on National Security and the Law, Georgetown Law (Lauren, HIGH TECHNOLOGY, CONSUMER PRIVACY, AND U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY, Symposium Articles, 4 Am. U. Bus. L. Rev. 11 p.15-18, 2015, Hein Online)//JJ
The NSA programs ... in the process.

The best and newest research confirms the link

Marthews and Tucker, 15 – * National Chair at Restore the Fourth AND **PhD in economics and professor of Marketing at MIT (Alex and Catherine, “Government Surveillance and Internet Search Behavior”, 29 April 2015, file:///C:/Users/17GGonzalez/Downloads/SSRN-id2412564%20(2).pdf)//gg
This study is ... and international competitiveness.

That undermines US global technological leadership

Castro and McQuinn 15, Daniel Castro works at the Center for Data Innovation, Government Technology, The Information Technology & Innovation Foundation, worked at the U.S. Government Accountability Office, went to Carnegie Mellon. Alan McQuinn works at the Federal Communications Commission, previously had the Bill Archer Fellowship at the University of Texas, (June 2015, “Beyond the USA Freedom Act: How U.S. Surveillance Still Subverts U.S. Competitiveness”, file:///C:/Users/Mark/Downloads/2015-beyond-usa-freedom-act.pdf)//AK
When historians write ... the global market.

Tech leadership is the primary driver of hegemony

Weiss 14 – Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia, Professor Emeritus in Government and International Relations at the University of Sydney, Honorary Professor of Political Science at Aarhus University. (Linda, America Inc.?: Innovation and Enterprise in the National Security State, Cornell University Press, 4/1/14, p. 1-3)//JJ
So what accounts ... NSS "goes commercial.

Hegemonic decline causes great power wars

Zhang et al., Carnegie Endowment researcher, 2011
(Yuhan, “America’s decline: A harbinger of conflict and rivalry”, 1-22, http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2011/01/22/americas-decline-a-harbinger-of-conflict-and-rivalry/, ldg)
This does not ... unrivalled US primacy.

Cloud computing is key to effective space situational awareness – prevents space debris collisions with satellites

Johnston et al 13 – Ph.D. with the Computational Engineering and Design Group (CED) at the University of Southampton, MEng degree in Software Engineering from the School of Electronics and Computer Science, Senior Research Fellow for the Faculty of Engineering and the Environment at University of Southampton (Steven, Neil O’Brien – Senior Technical Recruiter at Colloco Search, Hugh Lewis – Astronautics Research Group at the University of Southampton, PhD, Elizabeth Hart – School of Engineering Science at Southampton University, Adam White – School of Engineering Science at Southampton University, Simon Cox – professor of Computational Methods and Director of the Microsoft Institute for High Performance Computing, PhD, Clouds in Space: Scientific Computing using Windows Azure, Journal of Cloud Computing, 2013, http://www.journalofcloudcomputing.com/content/pdf/2192-113X-2-2.pdf)//JJ
Within the last ... development and comparison.

Debris collisions decks satellitesextinction

Moore 9 – Professor of Economics and International Affairs, M.S. and Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison (Mike, Space Debris: From Nuisance to Nightmare, Foreign Policy, 2/12/9, http://foreignpolicy.com/2009/02/12/space-debris-from-nuisance-to-nightmare/)//JJ
When satellites collide ... could become reality.


The United States federal government should substantially curtail its surveillance of information in the custody of American corporations by exclusively limiting surveillance to investigations carried out under section 702 of the FISA Amendments Act, subject to additional use restrictions in Presidential Policy Directive 28.

Contention 3 - Solvency

Applying the restrictions of PPD-28 to section 702 eliminates all negative perceptions of overbreadth

Nojeim, 14 - Director, Project on Freedom, Security & Technology at the Center for Democracy & Technology(Greg, “COMMENTS TO THE PRIVACY AND CIVIL LIBERTIES OVERSIGHT BOARD REGARDING REFORMS TO SURVEILLANCE CONDUCTED PURSUANT TO SECTION 702 OF FISA” 4/11)
To address the ... of doing so.